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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 380.


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380 KOLHAN
responsible to Government. For acting as revenue collectors, the
mdnkis receive a commission of ro per cent. and the mundds 16 per
cent. of the revenue which passes through their hands. Besides these
duties, the mcinkis and ynundds, each in his degree, have certain informal
powers to decide village disputes and questions of tribal usage. Per-
sons other than Hos are not allowed to settle in the estate without
the permission of the Deputy-Commissioner. The last settlement was
effected in 1897, when the gross rental was fixed at Rs. 1,77,000, sub-
ject to a deduction of Rs. 49,000 on account of commission to mdnkis,
mundds, and tahsilddrs (as the village accountants are here called). A
uniform rate Of 12 annas per acre was charged for embanked rice culti-
vation, and 2 annas for uplands. New dikkus or non-Hos were assessed
at double these rates. Of the total area, 525 square miles were culti-
vated, 450 square miles were cultivable, and 219 square miles unculti-
vable waste ; 212 square miles were `protected' forest, 529 square miles
`reserved' forest, and 20 square miles ldkhirdj or revenue free. C:hai-
basa, the head-quarters of Singhbh¨m District, which lies within the
estate, is assessed under a separate settlement.
[J. A. Craven, Final Report on the Settlement of the Zollidn Govern-
ment Estate (Calcutta, 1898).]
Kolhapur.-Town in Amraotf District, Berar. See KHOLAPUR.
Kolhapur State (or Karavira, or Karvir).-State in the Kolhapur
and Southern Maratha Political Agency, Bombay, lying between
15° 50′ and 17° 11′ N. and 73° 43′ and 74° 44′ E.1, with an area of
3,165 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the river Varna,
which separates it from the District of Satara ; on the north-east by
the river Kistna, separating it from Sangli, Miraj, and Kurandvad ;
on the east and south by the District.of Belgaum; and on the west
by the Western Ghats, which divide it from Savantvadi on the south-
west and Ratnagiri on the west. Kolhapur comprises portions of the
two old Hindu divisions Of MAHARASHTRA and CARNATIc, a distinction
which is still marked in the language of the people, part of whom speak
Marathi and the remainder Kanarese.
Subordinate to Kolhapur are nine feudatories, of which the following
five are important: Vishalgarh, Bavda, Kagal (senior), Kapsi, and Ichal-
karanj´. The general statistics of all of these are shown in the table
on the next page.
Stretching from the heart of the Western Ghats eastwards into the
plain of the Deccan, Kolhapur includes tracts of widely different cha-
racter and appearance. In the west, along the spurs
Physical
aspects. of the main chain, are situated wild and picturesque
.
hill slopes and valleys, producing timber, myrabo-
lams, &c., and covered with forests. The central belt, which is open
These spherical values do not include certain outlying tracts, like Torgal.
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