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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 381.

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and fertile in parts, is crossed by several lines of low hills running
east and west at right angles to the main range. Farther east, the
land becomes more open, and presents the unpicturesque uniformity of
a well-cultivated and treeless plain, broken only by an occasional river.
Among the western hills are perched the forts of Panhla, Vishalgarh,
Bvda, Bhdhargarh, and Rngna, ancient strongholds of the Kolhpur
chieftains. The State is watered by eight streams of considerable size;
but though navigable during the rainy months by trading boats of
2 tons, none is so large that it cannot be forded in the hot season.
The only lake of any importance is that of Rankala, near the city of
Kolhpur. It has lately been improved at a considerable cost. Its
circumference is about 3 miles, and its mean depth 33 feet. Except
in the south, where there are some ridges of sandstone and quartzite
belonging to the Kaladgi (Cuddapah) formation, Kolhapur comes within
the area of the great Deccan trap fields.
Subdivisions and Feudatories. Area in Villages. Population, Revenue,
square in thousands
miles. 1901. of rupees,
ICo1hdpur Proyer.
Petha Krv-ir 311 142 164,351
PethaPanhla,including Chanwadmahhl 468 202 113,085
Petha Alte . 219 49 113,585 .ro
Petha Shirol, including Rybg mahdl . 328 64 88,828
Gad-Hinglaj, including Katkol mahal . 487 166 124,342
Petha Bhiidhargarh 489 193 94,761 Z
Total 2,302 816 698,952 43,91
Feudatory jFgzrs.
Vishlgarh . 235 66 35,258 2,02
Bvda . 243 69 44,400 1,44
Kpsi . 32 10 13,754 6o
Kagal Senior 112 40 49,233 3,26
Kgal junior , 67
Ichalkaranji . 241 78 68,414 3,29
Torgal . ... ... ... 44
Himmat Bahadur . , , , 89
Sarlashkar Bahadur , , , 69
Total 863 263 211,059 3,26
Grand total 3,165 1,079 910,011 57,17
The chief trees are the ain, nana, hirda, hinjal, jdmbul, and bdva ;
minor products are bamboos, myrabolams, and grass. Tigers and
leopards are found in the hills. Bison, bears, and wild dogs are
occasionally met with.
At an elevation of about i,8oo feet above the sea, Kolhapur enjoys
on the whole a temperate climate. In the west, with its heavy rainfall
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