shrine ; and an inscription on one of them, attributed to the second
century s. c., runs: `Made by Balaka, the pupil of Kanha (Krishna).'
The caves are fully described in the Thana District Gazetteer.
Kondapalli. - Town and hill-fortress in the Bezwada tdluk of
Kistna District, Madras, situated in 16° 37′ N. and 80° 33′ E. Popu
lation (1900, 4,799 The place is now unimportant, but was formerly
a fortress of considerable strength and the capital of one of the five
Northern Circars. Built about A.D. 136o by the Reddi kings of
Kondavļd, it. became the centre of numerous struggles. It was taken
by the Bahmani Sultan in ī47r from the Orissa kings, and in 1477
from a revolted garrison. Falling once more into the hands of the Orissa
kings, it was again captured by Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar about
1515, and by Sultan Kuli Kutb Shah in 1531. It surrendered to
the troops of Aurangzeb in 1687, and in 1766 was taken by General
Caillaud from the Nizam. A small British garrison was stationed here
till 1859. The ruined outworks, some miles in circumference, are now
overgrown with jungle or covered with corn-fields ; but the citadel on
the rock overhanging them is still a striking object. At Kondapalli
there is a special industry-the manufacture of small figures and toys
from a light wood which grows on the hills.
Kondavid.-Village and hill-fortress in the Narasaraopet tāduk of
Guntur District, Madras, situated in 16° 16′ N. and 80° 16′ E. Popu
lation (1901), 1,979. It was once the capital of a province of the
same name extending from the Kistna river to the Gundlakamma.
The fortress, constructed in the twelfth century, was a seat of the
Reddi dynasty from 1328 to 1482. It was taken by Krishna Deva
Raya of Vijayanagar about 1516, and by the Sultans of Golconda in
1531, 1536, and 1579. The Musalmans called it Murtazanagar. The
French obtained the province in 1752, and it passed to the English in
1788. The fortifications, erected upon the crests of a small range of
hills, are extensive and strongly built with large stones. They are
many miles in circumference and in a fair state of preservation. A
description of them will be found in the Indian Antiquary, vol. i,
P. 182. The interior of the fort, which is overgrown with thick jungle,
contains the ruins of numerous storehouses and magazines. The hill,
the highest point of which is 1,701 feet above the sea, was once used
as a sanitarium by the officers at Guntūr.
Kondka.--Native State in Central Provinces. See CHHUĪKHADAN.
Kongnoli. - Village in the Chikodi Mluka of Belgaum District,
Bombay, situated in 16° 33′ N. and 74° 20′ E., on the Belgaum-Kolha
pur road, in the extreme north-west corner of the District. Population
(1901), 5,597. The village has a large trade, sending rice to Belgaum
and various places in Kolhapur, and importing cloth, dates, salt, spices,
and sugar. A weekly market takes place on Thursday, when cotton