the Bangash (6,ooo), the Chamkannis, Ghilzai, Mangals, and Orakzai.
The Yew Hindus are nearly all' Aroras, that caste numbering nearly
a,ooo. The language of the people is Pashia, but Hindki is spoken
by the resident Hindu population. Hindki or Hindko. is the Pashttl
name for Western Punjabi as spoken by Hindus and some other
people, e.g. the Peshawar city folk, along the frontier. Agriculture
is virtually the sole occupation of the people, as 'nothing but the most
primitive industries are carried on; and all but the barest neces'saries
of life are imported into the valley. Silk, for which Kurram was in
ancient times famous, is still produced and manufactured.
Wherever water is available for irrigation, the soil is highly pro-
ductive; but, owing to the absence of a settled government and the
internal feuds of the people, the cultivable area is not
all under cultivation, and irrigation is carried on only Agriculture, dcc.
by small channels constructed and maintained by a single hamlet or'
family. Hitherto the autumn harvest of rice, maize, and oilseeds has
been the more important, and it pays two-thirds of the land revenue;
but the spring harvest of wheat, barley, and clover is of increasing
value. Apples, pears, grapes, cherries, pomegranates, peaches, and
a fruit peculiar to the Kurram and Tirâh, known as the shaltl, also-
grow ; and with improved communications fruit-growing will probably
become an important industry. Famine is unknown in Kurram.
Kurram is now accessible' from Kohât by the Khushâlgarh-Kohŕt-
Thal branch of the North-Western Railway. This does not enter the
Agency, but a good tonga road runs from the terminus at Thal to
Pârachinar (54 miles), crossing the Kirman stream by a fine bridge.
From Parachinâ,r the road is unmetalled and passes via Kharlachi to
Hariob. Unmetalled roads or bridle-paths also lead from Parachinar
to P'eiwar, from Kharlâchi to Peiwar, from Mir Jamal to Uchadarra,
and from Parachinâr to Walai China via Lakka Tigga. All were
constructed in 1893.
For administrative purposes the Agency is divided into Upper and
Lower Kurram, each being under a naib-hâhim, stationed at'Pŕrachinâr
in Upper, and Sadda `in Lower Kurram. The naib- "
hűki.~is are under the control of the Political Agent, Administration,,,
who is also aided by a Revenue Assistant:
The Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the- Frontier
Crimes Regulation, the Frontier Law and Justice Regulation, and the.
Murderous Outrages Regulation have been extended to Kurram, while
nnaűna or the customary law of the Tűris is enforced, all' cases being
settled by the Political Agent and his Assistants. The nrizitna,
though unwritten, is well-known to the maliks or heads of tribes, and
they decide what the custom is in any given ease. The cases of a civil
character are chiefly for the recovery of loans, possession of land,