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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 106.


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Karachi, Peshawar, and Calcutta: distance by rail from Calcutta;;
1,252 miles; Bombay, 1,28o; Karachi, 784; and Delhi, 298. The
city is the, second largest in the Province ,; and the
Population. population, excluding that of the cantonment, ways;
138,878 in 1881, x59,597 in 18gr, and 186,884 Jn 9or. The popu-.
lation in 1901 included 113,253 Muhammadans, 62,922 Hindus,
5,964 Sikhs, and 4,199 Christians. ,
Though legend attributes the founding of Lahore or Lohawarana to
Lava, the son of Rama, it is not probable that Lahore was founded
History. before the first century A. D., as we neither find it
mentioned in connexion with Alexander, nor is it
described by Strabo or Pliny. On the other hand, it may possibly be
the Labokla of Ptolemy, as Amakatis, which is mentioned by that.
author as, near Labokla, has been identified by Cunningham with
the ruins of Amba Kapi, about 25 miles from Lahore. The first
certain historical record of Lahore is, however, that of Hiuen Tsiang,
who mentions it as a large Brahmanical' city visited by him in A. D. 6,30
on his way to Jullundur. About this time it is probable that the
capital of the kingdom 'of Lahore was transferred to Sialkot, as Albircini
speaks of Lahore as a; prgvince,whose capital was Mandh ikur, and it ;
is noticeable that Al Masiidi;makes no mention of Lahore.
At the end of the tenth century the kingdom of Lahore was in the
hands of a Brahman dynasty, and in A. D. 988 Jai Pal, the reigning -
monarch, was decisively beaten by Sabuktag n. ', Mahmnd did not visit
Lahore for more than twenty years after his first invasion, of the Punjab,
though he defeated jai Pal in loos and Anand Pal in roo8'. Lahore
city was not at this: time a place of great importance: In 1034 Lahore
was seized by Nialtigin, the revolted, governor of Multan. He, how-
ever, was expelled, and in 1036 Lahore was made the capital of the
Ghaznivid dominions east of the Indus, A flnal insurrection by
the Hindus at Lahore in 1042 was quelled by Maudud, and the city
was left in charge of Malik Ayaz, whom Muhammadan tradition regards
as the founder. During the reign. of the first eight - Ghaznivid princes
Lahore was governed by viceroys as the head-quarters of a province -
but during the reign of Masud III (1099-1114) it was made the seat
of government of the empire. After MasUd's death Muhammad
Bahlimä governor of Lahore, rebelled against Bahrain Shah in 1119,
but was defeated;, and in 1153 Khusru Shah again transferred the
seat of government to Lahore, where it. remained till 1193, The city ,
was put to ransom by Muhammad of Ghor in 1x81, and taken in 1186.
From this time onwards Lahore was the centre of the opposition to
the authorities at Delhi, while subject to the constant incursions of the
turbulent Khokhars, who devastated the country round in 1205. _On
the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206 Kutb-ud-din Aibak was
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