LAS BELA I45
and on the west by the Hala offshoot of the Pab range, The, whole
of the eastern part of the State, is mountainous; ,
the centre consists of a triangular level plain with Physics.
its base on the sea; on the west the State has
a narrow strip of coast stretching past Ormara: The hills include
the- western slopes . of the KIRTHAR mountains as far north as Lak
Phusi ; the main ridge of the Pas range, with. part of the Khude or
Khudo and the whole of the Mor offshoot; and on the west the lower
slopes of the MAKRAN COAST RANGE, including Taloi and Batt. The
largest rivers are the PORALI and HAB. Minor streams, include the
Windar, Kharrari, and Phor. The floods of the Windar, Kharrari,
and POrali afford most of the irrigation in the central plain. The
Porali carries a small permanent supply of water at Welpat., The
HINGOL is another river which falls into the sea within.the State limits.
The coast-line extends from the, mouth of the Hab river westward
for about 250 miles, and possesses two roadsteads in SONMIANI, and
Ormara. Close to the former, lies he large backwater known as'
Miani Hor. A little to the north of Sonmiani is the SIRANAA
The State has never been geologically examined. Alluvial deposits
cover the central plain, while the hills consist chiefly of limestone:
The vegetation consists of a desolate scrub, represented, by such plants
as Boucerosia Aucheriana, Ca pparis aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, Salvia-
dora oleoides, Acacia Farnesiana, and: many AsMagali., Mangrove
swamps occur on the coast. Sind ibex and mountain sheep are.
numerous in the hills. ° Ravine-deer' (gazelle) are plentiful, and some
hyenas, wolves, and wild hog occur. Pangolins are not uncommon.
Black and grey partridge afford good sport. Many kinds of fish are
caught off the coast:
The climate of the northern parts is extremely hot for eight months
of the year., From, November to February the air is crisp and cool,
causing pneumonia among the ill-clad inhabitants. Along the coast
a more moderate and moist climate prevails. Throughout the summer
a sea-breeze springs up at midday, to catch which the. houses of all the
better classes are, provided,with windsails in the roof. The rainfall is
capricious and uncertain, and probably does not exceed the, annual:
average; of, Karachi, or about 5 inches.
Reference has been made in the article on BALUCHISTiN to the
march of Alexander the Great in 325 B.C. through the southern part
of the State. We know that the ruler in the seventh
century was a Buddhist priest. The country lay on - History.
the route followed by the Arab general,, Muhammad bin Kasim;
and Buddhism probably gave place to Islam about this time.., The
succeeding period is. lost in obscurity; but chiefs of the,Gujar, Ranjha,