TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS
of the country. Landholders and agriculturists compose about half
the population; about a .,quarter are engaged in--sheep- and goat-
breeding; while the rest are fishermen, traders, labourers, and servile
The soil of the country is a fertile, sandy alluvium. Almost the
whole of the land depends on flood-irrigation, and for this purpose
embankments have been constructed in all the prin-
cipal rivers except the Hab. The area irrigated Agriculture.
from permanent irrigation is small, and most of it lies in the Welpat
nidbat. The number of wells is insignificant. They are worked with
a leathern bucket and bullocks. The land is in the hands of peasant
proprietors. Cash rents are unknown. Tenants, where they exist,
receive a share of the grain heap. Cash wages, except for agricul-
tural labour, which is remunerated in kind, are now coming into vogue.
The rates vary from five annas per diem for a common labourer to ten
annas for a potter. The staple food-grain of the country is jozvdr,
mixed with which mung is grown. These crops constitute the autumn
harvest, while the spring harvest consists chiefly of oilseeds.
Sheep, goats, and camels are bred in large numbers, especially the
two latter. Camels are used for both.transport and riding. Horses
and ponies are few in number. Bullocks and cows of moderate size
are kept for agricultural purposes. Fishing forms an important industry
along the coast.
The forests are not systematically ` reserved.' The State -derives
a small income from those at Malan and Batt, and from the man
groves which grow in the swamps along the coast. In years of good
rainfall much excellent forage grass grows on the lower hills and is
exported to Karachi. The minor forest products are gum arabic;
bdellium, and honey. Little is known about the minerals in the
State. Marcasite is of frequent occurrence, but not in quantities
sufficient to be of commercial value. Limestone is burnt and.,exported
to Karachi, the State deriving about Rs. 1,500 per annum from,: it as
duty. Salt is obtained from surface excavations at Brar.
Rugs of excellent quality are manufactured in the dari stitch, and
good -embroidery is done on cloth and leather with .a steel crochet-
needle. Trade finds its way to Karachi by land,
and by sea from Gagu, Sonmiani, and Ormara. communications.
Caravans proceed to Makran to exchange grain
dates. The land trade with Sind. in 1902-3 was valued at
6.9 lakhs, exports, being 5.6 and imports 1•3 lakhs. No separate
figures are available for maritime trade. The imports include piece
goods and food-grains, especially rice-; and the exports wool, oilseeds,
sheep and goats, gh7, and fish-maws.
The only road is a track, 101 miles long and 12 feet wide, from the