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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 190.

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tion of the materials of Oriental pomp. The burden on the people was
crushing, and when the English traveller, Tennant, passed through
Oudh, he found almost everywhere a plundered and desolate country,
Saadat Ali Khan, half brother to Asaf-ud-daula, ceded a large territory
to the British in return for their protection; and thenceforward the
Nawab and his successors, the kings of Oudh, degenerated into a mere
faineant dynasty of pleasure-seekers, whose works no longer partook of
any national or utilitarian character, but ministered solely to the gratifi
cation of the sovereign, In the place of mosques, wells, forts, or bridges,
palace after palace sprang up in succession, each more ungraceful and
extravagant than the last. At the same time European influence began
to make itself felt in the architecture, which grew, gradually more and
more debased from reign to reign. Awkward imitations of Corinthian
columns supported Musalman domes, while false venetian blinds and
stucco marble replaced the solid brickwork of the earlier period.
Palaces were erected for the kings, for their wives, and for their concu.
bines, and hardly less palatial buildings to house the royal menageries,
Saadat Ali Khan set the fashion by erecting the Farhat Bakhsh or
`giver of delight,' the chief royal residence till the last king, Wajid All
Shah, built the Kaisar Bagh. He also built the portion of Lucknow
which extends east of the Machchhi Bhawan, besides numerous small
palaces, including the Dilkusha. In his time Lucknow reached very
nearly its present size.
Ghazi-ud-din Haidar (18x4), son of Saadat Ali Khan, was the first of
his line who bore the title of king. He built for his wives the two
palaces called the Great and Lesser Chhattar Manzil (' umbrella' or
`dome palace'), and also erected fine mausoleums to his father and
mother, and the Shah Najaf, in which he himself was buried. Other
memorials of this king are the Moti Mahal, the Mubarak Manzil, and
the Shah Manzil, where the wild-beast fights took place for which
Lucknow was famous. He attempted to dig a canal for irrigation from
the Ganges, but it proved a complete failure:
Nasir-ud-din Haidar (1827), son of the last-named monarch,, founded ,
the Tarawali Kothi or observatory,' under the superintendence of
Colonel. Wilcox, his astronomer-royal. It contained several excellent
instruments, On the death of Colonel Wilcox in` 1847, the establish-
ment was dismissed, and the instruments disappeared during the Mutiny.
The building was the head-quarters of the Fyzabad Maulvi, Ahmad-
ullah Shah, during the rebellion, and the insurgent council frequently
held its meetings here. It is now occupied as a bank. Nasir-ud-din
also built a great karbala in IrAdatnagar, under which he lies buried.
Muhammad All Shah (1837), uncle of Nasinud-din Haidar, raised
his own monument, the Husainabad Imambara, a tawdry building in
which the degeneration of architectural taste is distinctly marked. A
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