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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 199.


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,.'L UD.HIJNA DISTRICT =99
for girls maintained by the American Mission with .i50 pupils, of
whom 18 were reading in college classes in 1904, while 6oo girls are
taught in a number of primary schools. The chief school for Euro-
peans and Eurasians is the.Martini8re, which contains nearly ioo boys:,.
It is partly supported by the endowments bequeathed by General
Martin, but the fees amount to more than half a lakh annually.
A girls' school, now in the Khurshed Manzil, which was founded in
1866, contains 75 pupils. Lucknow is also a centre -of literary activity,
and five English and eighteen vernacular newspapers and periodicals
are published here. The former include an Anglo-Indian paper called
the Indian Daily Telegraph, and the Advocate, which is the leading
organ of native public opinion in the United Provinces, and is also
published in a vernacular edition. The Newal Kishore Press is one
of the most important publishing houses in India for Hindustani
literature.
[M. K Gubbins, Mutinies in Oudh (1858) ; McLeod Innes, Lucknow
and Oudh in the Mutiny (190.2).]
Ludhiana District.-District in the Jullundur Division of the
Punjab, lying between 30° 34' and 31° 1' N. and 75° 22' and
76° 24' E., with an area oŁ 1,455 square miles. It is bounded on
the north by the Sutlej, which separates it from the District of
Jullundur ; on the east by Ambala District and the Patiala State; on
the south by the territories of the chiefs of Patiala, Nabha, and Maler
Kotla ; and on the west by the District of Ferozepore. In the south;
several of its outlying villages are scattered among the States of Patiala,
Jind, Nabha, and Maler Kotla ; while, on the other, hand, in the east
two or three groups, of Patiala. villages lie within its territory. It is
divided into two portions by the high bank which
marks ' the ancient bed - of the Sutlej. Beneath physical
lies a half-deserted watercourse, called the Budha aspects.
nullah, still full in all but the driest seasons, and once the main
channel of the Sutlej. The principal stream of that river now reins
farther north, leaving a broad alluvial strip, a to 6 miles in width,
between its ancient and its modern beds.. This strip,, known as the
Bet, forms the :wider channel of the river, and is partly inundated
after heavy rain. It is 'intersected in every direction by minor water-
courses or nullahs and, being composed of recent alluvium, is for the
most part very fertile, but its eastern extremity has been injuriously
affected by percolation from the Sirhind Canal. The uplands to the ,
south of the high bank consist of a level plain, sloping gently to the
south-west and broken only by some lines of, sandhills which are
very common in the Jangal, the south-western portion of the uplands;
this tract is traversed.thfoughout by the Sirhind Canal.
There is nothing of geological interest in the District, which is
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