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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 201.

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In 18og, after Ranjit Singh's third invasion, a treaty was concluded
between him and the British Government, by which his further con-
quests were stopped, although he was allowed to retain all territories
acquired in his first two expeditions. At the same time, all the Cis-
SUTLEJ STATES that had not been absorbed were taken under British
protection. In the same year (r8oq) a cantonment for British troops
was placed at Ludhiana, compensation being made to the Raja of Jind,
in whose possession it then was. In 1835, on the failure of the direct
line of the Jind family, a tract of country round Ludhiana town came
into British possession by lapse, and this formed the nucleus of the
present District.
On the outbreak of the first Sikh War, Ludhiana was left with a
small garrison, insufficient to prevent part of the cantonments being
burnt by the chief of Ladwa or to oppose the passage of the Sutlej by
Ranjodh Singh. Sir Harry Smith threw some 4,000 men into the
place, after losing nearly all his baggage at the action of Baddowal.
This reverse was, however, retrieved by the battle fought at ALIWAL,
close to the Sutlej, in which Ranjodh Singh was driven across the
river, and the upper Sutlej cleared of the enemy.
On the conclusion of the first Sikh War in 1846, the District
assumed very nearly its present limits, by the addition of territory
annexed from the Lahore government and its adherents south of the
Sutlej. Since the British occupation, the town of Ludhiana has grown
in wealth and population, but its history has been marked by few
noticeable events. The cantonment was abandoned in 1854. During
the Mutiny in 1857 an unsuccessful attempt was made by the Deputy-
Commissioner, Mr. Ricketts, with a small force, to stop the rebellious
sepoys from Jullundur on their way to Delhi; but, with the assistance
rendered by the chiefs of Nabha and Maler Kotla, he was able to pre-
vent an outbreak in the turbulent and disaffected town of Ludhiana.
In the villages the Muhammadan Gujars were the only people to show
signs of disaffection, the Hindu and Sikh Jats remaining steadfastly
loyal. In 1872 occurred an outbreak of the fanatical sect of Kukas,
150 of whom, starting from Bhaini in this District, made a raid upon
Malaudh and the Muhammadan State of Maler Kotla. No adherents
joined them, and the outbreak was at once suppressed; Ram Singh,
the leader of the sect, was deported from India. Since the first Afghan
War (1838-42), Ludhiana town has been the residence of the exiled
family of Shah Shuja.
Besides the ruins of Sunet above mentioned there are no antiqui-
ties of importance. Under the Mughal emperors the imperial road
from Lahore to Delhi ran through the District, and is marked by kos
minors and by a large sarai, built in the reign of Aurangzeb, at
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