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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 202.

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The population of the District at the last four enumerations was
(x868) 585,547, (1881) 6x8,835, (1891) 648,722, and (x901) 673,097,
Population. dwelling in 5 towns and 864 villages. The District
is divided into three tahsils-LUDHIANA, JAGRAON,
and SAMRALA-the head-quarters of each being at the place from
which it is named. The towns are the municipalities of LUDHIiNA,
the head-quarters of the District, JAGRAON, KHANNA, RAIKoT, and
The following table shows the chief statistics of population in
1901 :-

Number of d $~ O ..Q S c 3
c o a
Tahsi~ ~' '~.~ 14 r V4 & E m.o C
a d 3 ro o K tV G3 i0 m
Ludhiana 685 1 432 333,337 488.0 + 2.9 16,443
Samr5la . 291 2 263 154,995 5325 - 7,848
Jagraon . 418 2 169 184,765 4431 + 11.1 7,605
District total 1,455 , 864 673,097 462.6 + 3.8 31,896
NOTa.-The figures for the areas of tahsas are taken from the revenue returns. The
total District area is that given in the Census Report.
Hindus number 269,076, or 40 per cent. of the total; Muham-
madans, 235,937, or 35 per cent. ; and Sikhs, 164,919, or 24 per cent.
The language of the District is Punjabi.
The tribes and castes are distinguished by no local peculiarities.
Jats or Jats number 235,000, or 35 per cent. of the total, 132,ooo being
Sikhs and 77,ooo Hindus. If the Jats are the best peasantry in India,
the Jats of the MALWA (i. e. those of Ferozepore and Ludhiana) possess
in a greater degree than any other branch of the tribe the qualities
which have earned for them this distinction. They have a finer
physique, and as farmers are more prudent and thrifty, than their
brethren in Lahore and Amritsar. The Rajputs (29,ooo) are un-
doubtedly the oldest of the agricultural tribes now found in the
District. They are almost all Muhammadans, and present a striking
contrast to the Sikh and Hindu Jats, being indolent and thriftless
cultivators. The Gujars (33,ooo) are mainly Muhammadans, inferior
to the Jats in general ability, and as a tribe turbulent, lawless, and
discontented. Lastly come the Arains (32,000), who are invariably
Muhammadans, excelling as market-gardeners and making more than
any one else out of a small plot of land, but incapable of managing
large areas. The religious castes include Brahmans (25,000), who
generally live on the Jats of the uplands, and the Muhammadan7
Madaris (6,ooo). About 17,000 persons (including the Madaris) are
classed as Fakirs, The Suds (too) deserve mention, as Ludhiana is
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