considered the head-quarters of their tribe. They are intelligent, and
take readily to clerical service under Government. Among the artisan
and menial castes may be mentioned the Chamars (leather-workers),
63,000 ; Chuhras (scavengers), 22,000 ; Jhinwars (water-carriers),
18,ooo; Kumhars (potters), io,ooo; Lohars_ (blacksmiths), 9,ooo;
Julahas (weavers), 17,000; Mochis (cobblers), 9,ooo; Nais (barbers),
12,000; Sonars (goldsmiths), 7,000; TarkhanS (carpenters), 21,000;
and Telis (oil-pressers), 14,ooo. About 55 per cent. of the total popu-
lation are returned as agricultural.
Ludhiana is the chief station in India of the American Presbyterian
Mission. Founded here in 1834, the mission has established many
branches throughout the Punjab and United Provinces, and main-
tains a large number of dispensaries and schools, among which the
Forman Christian College at Lahore is the best known. In Igor
the District contained 415 native Christians.
The soil of the Sutlej riverain is a stiff' moist loam, constantly ferti-
lized in the immediate neighbourhood of the river by the silt deposited
by it. In the uplands south of the high bank every Agriculture.
variety of soil is found, from stiff clay to the lightest
of sand, the lighter soils prevailing along the high bank and to the
south-west of the District, while those of the eastern parts are much
stiffer. Where there is no irrigation, the light sandy loam is the safest
soil; although with copious rain its yield is much less than that of the
stiffer soils, it is far more able to resist drought.
The District is held almost entirely by communities of peasant
proprietors, estates belonging to large landowners covering only about
24 square miles.
The area for which details are available from the revenue records
of 1903-4 is 1,394 square miles, as shown below
Tahsil. Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. Cultivable
Ludhiana 685 572 148 57
Samrala 291 245 9o 19
Jagraon 418 3,6 71 17
Total 1,394 711(3 309 93
The principal crops of the spring harvest are wheat and gram, the
areas under which were 364 and 285 square miles in r903-4. Barley
covered 32 square miles and rapeseed 35 square miles. Maize is the
chief crop of the autumn harvest, with 115 square miles; pulses covered
145 square miles, great millet 47 square miles, and spiked millet
4,110 acres. Sugar-cane covered only 18 square miles, but it is the
most valuable autumn crop.
VOL. XVI. 0