L UD:HIINA DISTRICT
During tho twenty years ending 19or the cultivated area increased
by more than 3o,ooo acres, the increase being chiefly due to the con-
struction of the Sirhind Canal. As no more canal water can be
spared for this District, the cultivated area, which now amounts to more
than four-fifths of the total, is not likely to increase much farther.
Loans under the Land Improvement Loans Act are not very
popular, about Rs. i,ooo having been advanced during the five years
Ludhiana is not a great cattle-breeding District, owing to the small
area available for grazing, and a large proportion of the cattle are
imported from the breeding tracts to the south. The horses of the.
Jangal tract, in which part of the Jagraon tahsil lies, are a famous
breed descended from Arab stallions kept at Bhatinda by the Mughal
emperors. The District board maintains 4 horse and i i donkey
stallions. Sheep and goats are kept in almost every village, and camels
in the Jangal tract. A large number of ducks and geese are reared
in the old cantonment for the Simla market.
Of the total area cultivated in 1903'4 309 square miles, or 26 per
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, ai9 square miles were
irrigated from wells, 513 acres from wells and canals, 89 square miles'
from canals, and 103 acres from streams and tanks. In addition,
66 square miles, or 6 per cent., were subject to inundation from the
Sutlej. The canal-irrigation is from the SIRHIND CANAL. The main
line traverses the Samrala tahsil without irrigating it, and then below
Doraha (in Patiala State) gives off the Abohar and Bhatinda branches;
the former passes through the Ludhiana and Jagraon tahsils, supplying
them from six distributaries, while the extreme-south of the District
is watered by a distributary of the Bhatinda branch; Wells in the
uplands are of masonry, worked by bullocks on the rope-and-bucket
system ; in the riverain tract, owing to the nearness of the water to
the surface, lever and unbricked wells are largely used. In. 1903-4
the District contained 10,481 masonry wells, and g6a upbricked and
lever wells and water-lifts.
The only forests are two plantations of s&sham (Dalbergia Sissoo) on
the banks of the Sutlej, `reserved' under the Forest Act, with an area
of 197 acres. There are also 179 acres of forest land under the District
board. Kanhar or nodular limestone is found in many places.
The chief industry is the weaving of shawls, known as Rampur
Fhddars, from the wool of the Tibetan goat and other fine wools.
Trade and The industry is chiefly carried on by a colony of
Communications. Kashmiris, who in ;833 migrated from Kashmir on
account of a famine, and settled in Ludhiana town,
where shawls used to be made until the trade was killed by the Franco
German War. Cotton stuffs are produced largely, and Ludhiana is,.,