ADMINISII TRA.2TON a05
famous for its turbans, which are imported from laoshiarpur and
embroidered in the town. Many regiments of the Indian army are
supplied with turbans from Ludhiana. Check cloths known as gabrins
are also made in large quantities from English and American yarns.
Ivory billiard-balls are turned at Ludhiana and Jagraon. The sugar
industry is important, and a great deal of oil is expressed and exported.
The District possesses two factories for ginning cotton, and two flour-
mills. Both the ginning factories and one of the flour-mills are at
Khanna, and the other flour-mill is at Ludhiana town. The number of
employes in the ginning factories in 1904 was 145, and in the flour-
There is a large export of wheat to Karachi, and of rapeseed, oil
maize, millets; and pulses to the United Provinces and Bengal; woollen
and cotton goods are exported all over India. The chief imports
are piece-goods, cotton yarn, sugar from the Jullundur Doab, and iron,
salt, brass and copper vessels, and barley and inferior grains from the
Native States to the south.
The main line of the North-Western Railway passes. through Lud.
hiana town, from which place the Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal Railway (also
broad gauge) runs to Dhuri on the Rajpura-Bhatinda line and Jakhal
on the Southern Punjab Railway. A line. connecting Ludhiana with
Ferozepore, Fazilka, and M'1,eodganj on the Southern Punjab Railway
has recently been opened. The grand trunk road passes through the
District by the side of the main line of railway, and an important
metalled road runs from Ludhiana town via Ferozepore to Lahore.
The total length of metalled roads is 165 miles and of unmetalled
roads 207 miles; of the former, 75 'smiles are under the Public Works
department and the rest under the District board. The main line and
Abohar branches of the Sirhind Canal are navigable, as is the Sutlej
during the rains. The Sutlej is crossed by twelve ferries.
The District suffered, like the rest of the country, in the cthalisa
famine of 1783, and famines occurred in 1813 and 1833. In 1861 and
x869 there was considerable scarcity, and Rs. 6,6oo
and Rs. 7,ooo respectively was spent', on famine relief. Famine.
Ludhiana was unaffected by the scarcity of 1878. The opening of the
Sirhind Canal has made the District secure against drought, and food
grains were exported during the famines of x897 and 19oo. The
area of crops matured in the famine year 1899-i9oo, amounted to
72 per cent. of the normal.
The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by four
Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, of whom Administration.
one is in charge of the District treasury. .It is
divided into the three tahsils of LLIIDHIANA, SAMRALA, and JAGRAON,
each under a tahsildar assisted by a naib-tahsildar.