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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 207.

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The regular police force consists of 508 of all ranks, including
117 municipal police, under a Superintendent, who usually has three
inspectors to assist him. The village watchmen number 917. - There
are 1z police stations, outposts, and 16 road-posts. The District jail
at head-quarters has accommodation for 318 prisoners.
The District: stands fourth among the twenty-eight Districts,of the
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In igoi the pro=
portion of literate persons was 47 per cent. (83 males and o. ii females).
The number of pupils under instruction was 3,97'7 in r88o-i, 8,875
in i89o-r, ro,825 in igoo-i, and 8,763 in 1903-4. In the last year
the District possessed ig secondary; 104 primary,'and 2 special (public)
schools, and 8 advanced and 73 elementary (private) schools, with
633 girls in the public and 351 ill the private schools. The com-
paratively high standard of education is largely due to the energy of the
missionaries. The two mission high schools at Ludhiana, one of them
a boarding-school, are aided by Government. There are fifteen middle
schools throughout the District, including one for girls at Gujarwal.
The District board maintains a technical school, teaching up to the
middle standard, at Ludhiana. The North India School; of Medicine
for Christian Women gives professional teaching. The total expendi-
ture on education in 1903-4 was r-r lakhs, of which District funds
supplied Rs. 25,ooo and municipal funds Rs. i8,ooo, Government
grants came to Rs. 5,ooo, and fees brought in Rs. z8,ooo.
Besides the civil hospital and branch dispensary at Ludhiana town,
the District has six outlying dispensaries. At these institutions
103,764 out-patients and 1,336. in-patients were treated in 1904, and
5,206 operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 20;000, of
which about half came from municipal funds.
The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was i 2,o9o, repre=
senting 18 per i,ooo of the population.
[H. A. Rose, District Gazetteer (in press) ; T. G. Walker, Settlement
.port (1884), and The Customary Law of the Ludhiana District
Ludhiana Tahsil.-Tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab, lying on
the south bank of the Sutlej, between 30 34' and 31 i' N. and 75 36'
and 76 9' E., with an area of 685 square miles. The population in
agoi was 333,337, compared with 323,700 in i8gi. The town of
LUDHIXNA (population, 48,649) is the tahsil head-quarters, and there
are 432 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted
to 5.8 lakhs. The northern portion lies in the Sutlej lowlands, and
the southern in the upland plain irrigated by the Abohar and Bhatinda
branches of the Sirhind Canal.
Ludhiana ,Town.-Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of
Ludhiana, Punjab,: situated in 30 56' N. and.75 52' E., on the grand
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