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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 367.


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,DESCRIPTION 367
the introduction of granite from Cuddapah and North Arcot in' 1864, ..
local architecture has, however; been slowly working towards an adapta-
tion of the Hindu Saracenic; and the High Court, the `Law College,
and the Bank of Madras are built in this style, in.red brick and grey
granite. The latest building material is the beautiful brown stone
from Nellore, close grained yet easily worked,' of which the Young
Men's Christian Association building on the Esplanade is made.
The chief statues of Madras are those of Her Majesty the late
Queen-Empress, near the Senate House; of the King-Emperor,
opposite the Mount Road entrance to Government House; of Lord
Cornwallis, in the Fort square; of Sir Thomas Munro, by Chantrey,
on the Island; of General Neill, of Mutiny fame, opposite the Madras
Club; of Justice Sir Muttuswami Ayyr, in the High Court; and of
the Rev. Dr. Miller, on the Esplanade, opposite the Christian College.
The churches of Madras deserve more space than can be accorded
them. The foundation-stone of the Luz Church bears the date IP6
and the oldest European inscription in India. The St. Thom6 Cathe-
dral contains a series of memorials to Portuguese pioneers, beginning
in 15,57 St. Mary's Church in the Fort, consecrated in 168o, is tli.
oldest Protestant place of worship in India,,and contains the graves of
Governor Nicholas Morse, a great-great-grandson of Oliver Cromwell
and the man who capitulated to La Bourdonnais in 1746; of Lord
Pigot, who defended the Fort against Lally in 1759, and was afterwards
deposed and imprisoned by his own Council; of the famous Swartz,
missionary and statesman; of Sir Thomas Munro, who died of cholera
while on .a farewell tour in his beloved Ceded Districts in x827; and of
many others who have made Madras history. The Roman 'Catholic
Cathedral in Armenian Street was erected in 1775 by the Capuchins;
and about the same time. the Armenians, then a wealthy and influential
community, built their church in the same street. St. Mark's, Black
Town, was, consecrated in r 804; St. George's Cathedral in 1815,. and
St. Andrew's (the Scottish Kirk) in 182 1. The two last were designed
by the Civil Architect, Major De Havilland.
The principal Hindu temples are those dedicated to' Vishnu and
Siva respectively in Triplicane and Mylapore ; and the chief mosque' is
that in Triplicane:
The climate of Madras has been described with considerable ac-
curacy as three months hot and nine months hotter. The cooler
months are never cold; the mean temperature of December and
January being 76; but the heat in the summer does not approach
that of Northern India, the mean for May and June being the moderate
figure of goo. The mean for the year is 83. The annual rainfall,
based on figures for eighty-five years, averages 49 inches, of which
.z9J inches are received during the, north=east monsoon from October to
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