net profit on all the manufactures in 1904 was Rs. 42,000, which was
considerably larger than that earned in any other Central jail. Within
the Penitentiary is the only Government workhouse which has been
established in the Presidency under, the European Vagrancy Acts.
Civil debtors are usually confined in a portion of the Central and
District , jails, but in Madras the civil jail is in Popham's Broadway
at some distance from the Penitentiary. Including its, hospital,,; it
will hold 81 persons. In 1904 the daily average, number of persons
confined in it was 34. There is also a Criminal Leper Ward in
Royapuram, with accommodation for 23 persons.
The first educational effort in the early days of Fort, St. George
was the dispatch by the Company of a schoolmaster, who arrived
in 1678. In 1715 the European inhabitants con- '
vened a public. meeting, and resolved to establish Education.
a free school for Protestant European and Eurasian children. St.
Mary's Charity School was the result, and it survived till 1872, when
it was amalgamated with the Civil Orphan Asylums. The first attempt
to educate the natives was made by Christian missions. In 17i7 the
Danish missionaries at Tranquebar, of whom the chief was the famous
Ziegenbalg, obtained leave from the Government to establish two
schools, one for Portuguese in the English town and another for
Malabars (Tamils) in the Black Town. Their labours in this and
other stations received substantial support from the Society for Pro-
moting Christian Knowledge.
Madras is now the educational centre of the Presidency. Besides
the University, which is purely an examining body, conferring degrees
in Arts, Law, Medicine, Engineering, Teaching, and Sanitary Science,
the city contained on March 31, 1904, 1o Arts colleges, 3 professional
colleges, 97 secondary and 421 primary schools, and also 22 technical
and training schools.. Of the ten Arts colleges, three-the Presidency
College, the Madras Christian College, and Pachayyappa's -College-
are first-grade institutions giving instruction up to the B.A. degree.
The first of these is managed and financed by Government, while
the other two are aided with grants. : The three professional colleges
are the Law College, the Medical College, and the College of Engineer-,
ing. . Most of the lectures in the Law College were originklly given
by specially selected barristers and vakils of the High Court in the
early mornings and late afternoons when the Court was not sitting;
but from '1902 it has been made a whole-time college, with a per
manent staff of a principal and three professors. The Medical College
has also recently been reorganized in important directions. At SAIDA-
PET, just outside the limits of the city, are the Teachers' College and,
the College of Agriculture. The latter is to be transferred to Coim
batore. A noticeable point in connexion with all these special colleges