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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 386.


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females in 1904. .Of the 136 admissions in that year, 16' were
Europeans or Eurasians and the remainder natives. The cost of
maintenance was Rs. 1,05,000, of which Rs: 36,ooo was spent on
establishment and RS. 28;ooo on diet of patients.
Vaccination is compulsory in the city and is attended to with more
than usual care, the number of successful operations in 1903-4 being
52 per 1,ooo of the population, compared with am average for all
municipalities of so per 1,ooo. -At Guindy, near Madras, is the King
Institute of Preventive Medicine, from which animal vaccine is supplied
in sealed tubes throughout the Presidency, and where bacteriological
work and the preparation of various sera are also carried on.
[Madras Manual of Administration, 3 vols. (Madras 1885 and 1893)
Talboys Wheeler's Madras in the Olden Time, 3 vols. (Madras, r86);
Mrs Penny's Fort St. George (r9oo); Mr. Leighton's Vicissitudes of
Fort St. George (Madras, 1902) ; Mr. Foster's Founding of Fort St.
George (1902) ; and Colonel Love's List of Pictures in Government
-- .House, Madras (Madras, 1903).]
Madura District (llladurai).-District in the southern portion
of the east coast of the Madras Presidency, lying between 9 6' nd
1o 49' N. and 7ΰ I1' and 79 1q' E., with an area of 8,701 squire
miles. It consists of a section of the plain stretching from the eastern
slope of the mountain range of the Western Ghats to the sea, and
includes the drainage basin of the Vaigai river. Part of its ' souEti-
western and western border abuts on the Western Ghats, here known
as the Travancore Hills, which divide the District from the Native
State of Travancore; and the north-western boundary runs over the
` highland plateau which separates two other sections of the same range,
the Anaimalais . and the Palni Hills, from one mother. The Palnis
lie wholly within the limits of the District and are its most notable
mountains. On the north Madura is bounded by the Districts of
Coimbatore and Trichinopoly and the Native State of Pudukkottai;
on the north-east by Tanjore ; on the east and south-east by the waters
I of Palk Strait and the Gulf of Manaar; and on the'south and' south-
west by Tinnevelly District.
Its general aspect is that of a level plain, sloping gradually to the.
sea on the south-east and bisected by the channel of the Vaigai- river.
Physical To the west this plain is broken by the PALM HILLS
aspects. and other smaller spurs and outliers of the Western
Ghts, and by isolated hills and masses of rock
scattered throughout. The Palnis project across this part in an east-
north-easterly direction for a distance of 54 miles, and are about
15 miles wide on an average. To the south, and almost parallel, with
these, the Varushanitd hills and the Andipatti range also run out
~= from the -Western Ghats in a north-easterly direction. They extend
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