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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 105.

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Hfl HAND OR 105
The Maratha period of Malwa history forms the subject of Sir John
Malcolm's Central India, where it is treated in great detail. Briefly,
the Marathas gained a permanent footing in Malw about 1743, when
the Peshwa was made deputy-governor of the SOah. By degrees the
whole country fell to the great Maratha generals, whose descendants
still hold most of it-Sindhia of Gwalior, Holkar of Indore, and the
Ponwrs of Dhar and Dewas.
In the middle of the eighteenth century the British appeared as
actors on this scene; and Malwa from 1780 onwards, for a quarter
of a century, was a vast battle-field where Maratha, Muhammadan, and
European struggled incessantly, until the supremacy of the British was
finally established in 1818. During the next forty years the history
of Malwd was comparatively uneventful; but in connexion with the
Mutiny of 1857 risings took place at Indore, Mhow, Nimach, Agar,
Mehidpur, and Sehore. In 1899-i9oo Mlwa suffered from a severe
famine, such as had not visited this favoured spot for more than thirty
years. The people were unused to, and quite unprepared for, this
calamity, the distress being aggravated by the great influx of immigrants
from Rjputana, who had hitherto always been sure of relief in this
region, of which the fertility is proverbial. In 1903, a new calamity
appeared in the shape of plague, which has seriously reduced the
agricultural population' in some districts.
[For Malavas and Kshatrapas, see Journal of the Royal Asiatic
Society, 1890, p. 639, 1897) P. 17, and 1899, P. 357; for Guptas and
Hunas, J. F. Fleet's ` Gupta Inscriptions,' vol. iii of the Corpus Inscrip-
tionum Indicarum ; Journal Asiatique, 1883 ; Journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society, 1893, P. 77, and 1897, PP. 19, 421, 850, and 882 ; for
Paramaras, Epigraphia Indira, vol. i, p. 222 ; for Muhammadan dynasty,
L. White-King, Numismatic Chronicle (1904).]
Mdlw. (2).-Tract in the Punjab, lying between 29 and 31 N.
and 74 3o' and 77 E., and comprising the area south of the Sutlej
occupied by the Sikhs. It includes the Districts of Ferozepore and
Ludhiana, and the Native States of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, and Maler
Kotla. The tract is a great recruiting ground for Sikh regiments,
being in this respect second only to the Manjha. It is said that the
name is a modern one, the title of Malava Singh having been conferred
on the Sikhs of the tract for their valour by Banda, Bairagi, who pro-
mised that it should become as fruitful as Mlwa.
Mdmandiir.-Village in the Arcot tluk of North Arcot District,
Madras, situated in 12045" N. and 79 4o' E. Population (1901), 1,884.
It is chiefly remarkable for its rock-caves. The embankment of the
large tank to which the village gives its name rests upon two low hills,
and in the eastern face of the more southerly of these are the
excavations. They were probably the work of the Jains ; and possibly
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