l1%I4ND1/Lll Y DLSTI'ICT 125
2,149 Sikhs. Of the indigenous races, the Burmans and Shans profess
Buddhism, which had 634,ooo adherents in 1901, while the Kachins
for the most part are to be reckoned among the Animists, who
numbered about 88,ooo. Christians numbered 5,663.
Mandalay District (Burmese, Mandale).-District of the Mandalay
Division of Upper Burma, lying between 21° 42' and 22° 46' N. and
950 54' and 96° 46' E., with an area of 2,117 square miles. It is
bounded on the north by the Ruby Mines District; on the south by
the State of Lawksawk and by Kyaukse and Sagaing Districts; on the
east by the State of Hsipaw ; and on the west by the Irrawaddy, which
divides it from Sagaing and Shwebo Districts.
The main feature of the District is the wide plain, about 700 square
miles in extent, which occupies about one-third of the area, spreading
from the Irrawaddy eastwards to the foot of the
Shan plateau, and gradually increasing in width from Physical
north to south. This wedge-shaped level slopes both aspects.
southward and westward, and is, with the exception of portions that
are irrigated by canals or tanks, liable to drought by reason of the
uncertainty of the rainfall. The area flooded by the rivers during
the rains is about r5o square miles. To the north and east of the
plain are the hills forming the western edge of the Shan plateau, which
run for the most part in broken parallels north and south. Those
in the north, however, taking off from the Ruby Mines mountain group,
end abruptly north of the Sagyin hill, and cover about one-half of
the northernmost township. The highest points in this system are
from 2,000 to 3,6oo feet above the sea. The elevated ground to the
east takes in the whole of the Maymyo subdivision. It rises very
steeply from the plain, and develops into a picturesque plateau, 3,000
feet high, bounded on the east by a deep steep-sided gorge. Con-
spicuous hills in this plateau tower to a height of 4,000 and 4,700 feet.
From the level plain in the Irrawaddy valley rise isolated limestone
hills, of which the best known are the Sagyin hill (8oo feet), famous
for its alabaster quarries; Mandalay hill (954 feet), at the north-east
corner of the city, of which it commands a noble view; and the
Yankin hill, due east of the city, interesting for its images of fish,
carved in a natural cave, which are worshipped in times of scarcity
The main rivers are the IRRAWADDY, the Myitnge, and the Madaya.
The two latter are tributaries of the former, which skirts the western
boundary of the District throughout its entire length (75 miles), and
is studded with rich alluvial islands, whose movements from one side
of the channel to the other give considerable trouble to the officials
concerned in the administration of the Districts abutting on the stream.
The MVITNGE (or Doktawaddy), known as the Nam Tu by the Shans,