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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 150.

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JnWAD (8,005)-and 775 villages. It is divided into seven par;anas,
with head-quarters at Mandasor, Nimach, Bhaogarh, Jawad, Nahargarh,
Singoli, and Gangapur. The land revenue is Rs. 9,03,000. Mandasor
lies on the Malwa plateau, and, except for the range which runs
east and west to the north of Nīmach, consists of a level plain
coveied with black cotton soil. Poppy is largely grown.
Mandasor Town.-Head-quarters of the district of the same
name in Gwalior State, Central India, situated in 24° 4' N. and
75° 5' E., on the bank of the Siwana (Seuna or Sau) river,
a tributary of the Sipra, and on the Ajmer-Khandwa branch of the
Rajputana-Malwa Railway, r,5r6 feet above sea-level. The popula-
tion fell from 25,785 in 1891 to 20,936 in rgoi. The town is
a centre of the opium trade, one of the Government d6p6ts at
which duty is levied on the drug being established here. Another
industry of some importance is the manufacture of coloured cloth
for quilts and chunris (a piece of printed cloth worn by women
to cover the arms and upper part of the body). Local affairs are
managed by a municipality constituted in 1902. The income amounts
to Rs. 1,3oo, derived mainly from octroi. Besides the usual offices,
a combined British post and telegraph office, a State post office,
a police station, a dispensary, a school, and an inspection bungalow
are situated here.
Mandasor is a place of considerable antiquity and of historical
and archaeological importance. Its name in former days was Dasha-
pura, or the `township of ten hamlets,' and it appears to be referred
to in an inscription found at Nasik, which dates from early in the
Christian era. An inscription near Mandasor refers to the erection
of a temple of the Sun in 437, during the rule of Kumara Gupta I,
which was repaired thirty-six years later. As the town stands now,
it is entirely Muhammadan, though Hindu and Jain remains are
numerous. The fort on the east of the town is said to have been
founded by Ala-ud-din Khilji in the fourteenth century, but it was
considerably increased and made a place of importance by Hoshang
Shali (1405-34) of Malwa. Many of the stones used in the con-
struction of the wall seem to have been brought from Afzalpur,
r .T miles to the south. Owing to its position, Mandasor figures
continually in history. Near the big tank, outside the city, Humayun
surrounded the camp of Bahadur Shah in 1535 and defeated him,
driving him out of Malwa. When Malwa was taken by Akbar in
1562, Mandasor became the head-quarters of the Mandasor sarkdr
of the Siabah of Malwa. In the eighteenth century it fell to Sindhia,
in whose possession it has since remained. After his defeat at
Mehidpur, Holkar came to terms with the British, and the treaty
by which Malwa was settled was signed at Mandasor early in 1818.
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