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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 18, p. Introductory Notes.


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INTRODUCTORY NOTES
NOTES ON TRANSLITERATION
Vowel-Sounds
a has the sound of a in ° woman.'
a has the sound of a in `father.'
e has the vowel-sound in ' grey.'
i has the sound of i in `pin.'
i has the sound of i in police.'
o has the sound of o in `bone.'
u has the sound of a in 'bull.'
fi has the sound of 111n. ° flute.'
ai has the vowel-sound,in I mine.'
au has the vowel-sound-in 'house.'
It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish
between the long and short sounds of e and v in the Dravidian
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ` bet', and ` hot' in
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes' in pronunciation
were not likely to be made:
Consonants
Most Indian languages; have different forms for a number of con.
sonants, such as d, t, r, &c., marked in scientific works: by the use
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir.
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and :only two notes are
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, ;,has
been represented by h instead of q, which is often used. Secondly„
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common; and,,
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of
th in ' this' or ~ thin,' but should be pronounced as n ° woodhouse":
and ` boathook.' ,
A 2
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