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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 18, p. 35.

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of Hulhin (I8gi); C. A. Roe, Customary Law of the Multczn District
(revised edition, IgoI); E. O'Brien, Glossary of the Multani Language,
revised edition, by J. Wilson and Pandit Hari- Kishan Kaul (Igo3).]
Multan Tahsil.-Tahsil of Multan District, Punjab, lying between
z9 z9' and 30' 28' N. and 7I 17' and 71 58' E., with an area of
953 square miles. Its north-west border rests on they Chenab. It
consists of the Chenab lowlands, which are 'subject to periodical
inundation from the river, a higher tract farther east irrigated by
inundation canals, and a still higher strip beyond irrigated in part by
the Sidhnai Canal. The population in I go r was 232,126, compared
with Igo,43r in r89r. The tahsil head-quarters are at MULTAN CITY
(population, 87,394) It also contains 289 villages. The land revenue
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 49 lakhs.
MultAn City.-Head-quarters of the Multan Division, District, and
tahsil, in the Punjab, situated in 30' Iz' N. and 710 3I' E., on the
North-Western Railway, 576 miles from Karachi and 1,429, from
Calcutta. The city is built on a mound, the accumulated debris of
ages, at a distance of 4 miles from the present left bank of the Chenab;
enclosed on three sides by a wall from ro to ao feet in :height, but
open towards the south, where the old dry bed of the Ravi intervenes
between the city and the citadel. As late as the days of Timur, the
Ravi 'seems to have flowed past Multan, joining the Chenab io miles
lower down; and the original site consisted of two islands, which are
now picturesquely crowned by the city and citadel, at an elevation of
50 feet above the surrounding country. Population (igoi), 87,394,
including 46,899 Muhammadans and 36,947 Hindus.
Multan, formerly called Kashtpur, Hanspur, Bagpur, Sanb or. Sanab-
pur, and finally Mulasthan, derives its name from that of the idol and
temple of the Sun, a shrine of vast wealth in the pre-Muhammadan
period. As one of the frontier towns of India, it has been from the
earliest times of the greatest historical importance, and its history is
given in detail with that of MULTAN DISTRICT. Tradition identifies
the present site with the strong city of the Malli, stormed by Alexander.
For the next thousand years the conquerors of Multan present am
amazing variety of race-Graeco-Bactrians are followed by the Kushans,
who in turn give place to the White Huns. When the Arabs first
penetrated the valley of the Indus, the town was ruled by Chach,
a Brahman usurper, who died in A. D. 671. The Arabs entered India
from Sind, and after a victorious campaign they captured and garrisoned
Multan. For three centuries the garrison 'remained the outpost of
Islam in India, though by goo the Multan governor was independent
of Baghdad. About that time the followers of Abdullah, the Karmatian,
seized Multan. Mahmud, the orthodox ruler of Ghazni, waged per-
petual war upon this heretical sect, and the Ghaznivids kept a nominal
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