36 MULITN CITY
control over Multan until Muhammad of Ghor overthrew there: The
city fared but ill throughout these sectarian wars, and is said to have
been deserted when the Gardezi Saiyids first migrated there in the
From 12o6 to 1528 Multan was nominally subject to the kings of
Delhi., though in fact it was almost independent. In 1397 Timfir
occupied the city on his way to Delhi, and in 1528 it passed to Babar.
Always the route chosen by the earlier invaders, whether going or
returning, the province of Multan passed with its capital city from
band to hand, with short space to recover from one devastation ere
the next came upon it. Under the strong government of the early
Mughal emperors, Multan at. last enjoyed zoo years of peace. The
trade route from Hindustan to Persia passed through it, and Multan
itself became a trading city. The later invaders chose the northern
route, and Multan owed its immunity to the desert which had suddenly
replaced the fertile lands of Sind.
In 1752 the nominal allegiance of Multan was transferred from
Delhi to Kabul. In 1.771 the Sikhs appeared before the gates, and
the city was constantly threatened from that date until it was stormed
by Ranjit Singh in 1818. In 1821 D4wan Sawan Mal became its
governor, and a just, if absolute, autocracy replaced the confusion of
the Pathan r4&, e. The first Sikh War did not affect Multan ; but
the murder of two British officers here by Mulraj, son of Sdwan Mal,
led to the second Sikh War, in which it was captured on January g,
1849. The fortifications were dismantled in 1854. In the Mutiny
the garrison was quietly disarmed by orders of the Chief Commissioner.
In consequence of a riot which broke out in September, 1881, between
Hindus and Muhammadans the city was occupied by troops for ten
days, and a punitive police post was imposed on the city for a year.
Large and irregular suburbs have grown up outside the walls
since the annexation in 1849. Within the city proper, one broad
bazar, the Chauk, runs frQn1 the Husain Gate for a quarter of a mile
into the centre of the city, ending at the Wali Muhammad Gate,
from which three broad streets lead to the various gates of the city.
The other streets are narrow and tortuous,, often ending in culs-de-
sac. The principal buildings include the shrines of the Muham- '
madan saints, Baha-ud-din and Rukn-ul-alam (of the Arab tribe of
Kuresh, to which' the Prophet belonged), which stand in the citadel.
Close by are the remains of an ancient Hindu temple of the Nara-
singh Avatar of Vishnu, called Pahladpuri, partially blown down by
the explosion of the powder magazine during the siege of 1848'-9.
The great temple of the Sun once occupied the very middle of the
citadel, but was destroyed during the reign of the zealous Muham-
madan emperor Aurangzeb, who erected a Jama Masjid or cathedral