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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 18, p. 266.

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revolution as the canals are developed. The Bawal nizdmat, with
its dry hot climate, is singularly destitute of streams, tanks, and trees,
and depends for its cultivation on a scanty and precarious rainfall.
The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in
square miles:--

NizHynat. Total. Cultivated. Irrigated Cultivable
_ 291 186 76 70
Amloh .
Phal 394 360 85 16
Bawal . 281 247 23 21
Total 966 793 184 107
Gram (rgo square miles), wheat (97), pulses (94), bdjra (74), and
barley (62) were the principal food-crops in 1903-4. The area under
sugar-cane and cotton was 5 and 1,2 square miles respectively. The
State anticipated the Government of the Punjab in imposing restric-
tions on the alienation of agricultural land to non-agricultural classes.
Cattle are not raised in large numbers, though there is some cattle-
breeding in the Jangal. The fairs at Phul and Jaito are important
centres for the sale of cattle raised in the Southern Punjab. The
latter is held in March and is attended by about 25,000 people, and
the former by 5,ooo. Fairs are also held at Amloh and Nabha; and
at Mahasar in the Bawal niaianat a large fair takes place twice a year,
at which animals worth Rs. 1,50,000 change hands. Few horses are
now raised in the State, though the Jangal used to be famous for
a powerful breed. Goats are more prized than sheep, as they supply
milk; they are mostly reared in Bawal. Camels are kept by the people
for ploughing and the transport of grain in both Phul and Bawal, owing
to the character of the country.
The State owns 3168 per cent. of the Sirhind Canal; and the
Abohar and Bhatinda branches irrigate a large part of the Phul
nizdmat, while the Kotla branch supplies the rest of that nizdmat,
and another irrigates a part of Amloh. The area irrigated varies
inversely with the rainfall, the highest figures ever reached being
17,052 acres in Phul and 7,110 acres in Amloh. In Amloh the
spring-level is high and well-irrigation is common, 26 per cent. of
the cultivated area being irrigated in this way. In Phul, on the
other hand, the spring-level is very low, and only 2 per cent. of the
cultivated area is irrigated from wells. In Bawal, where there are no
canals, 7 per cent. of the cultivated area is irrigated from wells. In
1903 the total number of wells in the State was 4,723, of which
3,385 were in Amloh. About 73 per cent. of the wells in Amloh are
worked by means of the Persian wheel, which is unknown in the other
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