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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 18, p. 280.

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In addition, there are 299 revenue-free estates and 9,169 rent-free lands,
which pay road and public works cesses. The gross rental of the
District has been returned by the proprietors and tenure-holders at
34 lakhs, and of this sum the Government revenue demand represents
267 per cent. The incidence of the land revenue is R. 0-15-3 per
acre on the cultivated area.
The utbandi tenure is not peculiar to Nadia, but is especially common
in this District, where about 65 per cent. of the cultivated land is held
under it. The tenant pays rent only for the land he cultivates each
year ; and he cannot acquire occupancy rights unless he tills the same
land for twelve years consecutively, which in fact he rarely does. Mean-
while the landlord can raise the rent at his pleasure, and if the tenant
refuses to pay, he can be ejected. This tenure deprives the tenant of
any incentive to improve his lands, and at the same time encourages
rack-renting. It appears, however, to be gradually giving way to the
ordinary system. Where the tenants have occupancy rights, the rent of
rice land ranges from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 4-8 an acre; garden land is rented
at about Rs. II an acre, and land under special crops, such as chillies
and sugar-cane, at Rs. 7-8 or even more. Lands leased under the
utbandi system pay higher rents, as much as Rs. 12 to Rs. 23 being
paid per acre, as compared with R. 1 to RS. 2-9 for similar lands held
on long leases.
The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees:-

1880-i.* i89o-i. '900-1. 1903-4.
Land revenue . io,98 9,30 9,10 9,04
Total revenue . 16,68 14,93 16,58 17,Io
* In i88o-r the District included the subdivision of Bangaon, which was
subsequently transferred to Jessore.
Outside the nine towns which enjoy municipal governmen~, local
affairs are managed by a District board with' five subdivisional local
boards. The income of the District board in 1903-4 was Rs. I,89,o00,
of which Rs. 9o,ooo was derived from rates; and the expenditure
was Rs. 1,42,000, including Rs. 74,000 spent on public works and
Rs. 42,000 on education.
The District contains 21 police stations and 13 outposts. In 1903
the force at the disposal of the District Superintendent consisted of
5 inspectors, 48 sub-inspectors, 47 head constables, and 627 constables,
maintained at a cost of Rs. 1,38,ooo. There is one policeman to every
5-4 square miles and to 3,231 persons, a much larger proportion than
the Provincial average. Besides, there are 3,990 village rhaukiddrs
under 347 daffaddrs.
The District jail at Krishnagar has accommodation for 216 prisoners,
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