and subsidiary jails at each of the other subdivisional head-quarters for
a total of 61.
Nadia District, in spite of its proximity to Calcutta, is not especially
remarkable for the diffusion of the rudiments of learning. In igol
the proportion of literate persons was 5.6 per cent. (10-4 males and o-9
females) The total number of pupils under instruction increased from
about 20,000 in 1883 to 29,364 in 1892-3 and 31,102 in lgoo-r, while
31,573 boys and 3,442 girls were at school in 1903-4, being respectively
25.4 and 2-7 per cent. of the number of school-going age. The number
of educational institutions, public and private, in 1903-4 was 1,026,
including an Arts college, 9o secondary, 887 primary, and 48 special
schools. The expenditure on education was 3-26 laklls, of which
Rs. 62,ooo was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 40,000 from District
funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and 1-37 lakhs from fees.
Nadia has always been famous as a home of Sanskrit learning, and its
tols, or indigenous Sanskrit schools, deserve special mention. In these
Smriti (Hindu social and religious law) and Nydya (logic) are taught,
many of the pupils being attracted from considerable distances by the
fame of these ancient institutions. A valuable report on these tols, by
the late Professor E. B. Cowell (Calcutta, 1867), contains a full account
of the schools, the manner of life of the pupils, and the works studied.
Most of the tols are in the town of Nabadwip, but there are a few also
in the surrounding villages.
In 1903 the District contained 13 dispensaries, of which 7 had
accommodation for 52 in-patients. The cases of 66,ooo out-patients
and 646 in-patients were treated during the year, and 2,700 opera-
tions were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 21,000, of which Rs.
5,000 was met by Government contributions, Rs. 3,000 from Local
and Rs. 1o,ooo from municipal funds, and Rs. 1,935 from subscriptions.
In addition, the Zanana Mission maintains a hospital and three dis-
pensaries, and large numbers of patients are treated by the doctors of
the Ranaghat Medical Mission.
Vaccination is compulsory only within municipal areas. In 1903-4
the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 50,000, or 33 per
c,ooo of the whole population.
[Sir W. W. Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. ii (1875);
Fever Commission's Report (Calcutta, 1881).]
Nadia Town.-Town in Nadia District, Bengal. See NABADWIP.
Nadia Rivers.-A group of offshoots of the Ganges which flow
through the Nadia and Murshidabad Districts of Bengal and unite to
form the Hooghly. The Nadia rivers include the BHAGIRATH1, the
JALANGI with the BHAIRAB, and the MATABHANGA with the Churni.
These rivers represent old spill channels of the Ganges, and during the
rains still carry down to the sea a portion of the flood-water from that