pasture. The Aloe littorale grows wild; its stalks when cooked are
supposed to taste like asparagus. Formerly the Navanagar State was
infested by lions, which were especially numerous in the Barda and Alech
hills. In 186o, however, when cannon were frequently fired in pursuit
of the rebel Vaghers, the lions fled from the hills, and are now only
found in the Gir forest, and (rarely) in the Girnar mountain near
Junagarh. Leopards, the hunting cheetah, and nilgai are common.
The climate, especially on the Gulf of Cutch, along which the terri-
tory extends, is good. The annual rainfall averages between 2o and
The Jam of Navanagar is a Jadeja Rajput by caste, and belongs to
the same family as the Rao of Cutch. The Jadejas entered Kathiawar
from Cutch, and dispossessed the ancient family of Jethwas (probably
a branch of Jats) then established at Ghumli. Subsequently, about
1535-7, jam Rawal invaded Sorath and conquered the Jodiya, Amran,
and Khambhaliya parganas, and in 1540 founded the town of Navanagar.
He prosecuted his success with the assistance of his brothers Hardolji,
Ravojf, and Modji. Hardolji, the founder of the house of Dhrol,
conquered that pargana from Damal Chavada and retained it. Rajkot
is also an offshoot of this State. The Jam in 1807 executed the usual
engagements to pay tribute, to keep order in his territory, and not to
encroach on his neighbours. The Jadeja tribe was, at the beginning
of the last century, notorious for the systematic murder of female
children, to avoid the difficulty and expense of providing them with
husbands. Engagements were entered into by the Jadeja chiefs in
1812 to abandon this custom; and, under the constant watchfulness
of the British officers, it is believed to be now extinct. The Jam of
Navanagar is entitled to a salute of T i guns. He holds a sanad
authorizing adoption, and succession fallows the rule of primogeniture.
The present Jam is the well-known cricketer, Ranjitsinghji.
The population at the last four enumerations was : (1872) 29o,847,
(1881) 316,147, (1891) 379,61r, and (1901) 336,779. The decrease in
the last decade (1i per cent.) was due to the famine of 1899-19oo.
Hindus number 262,88o; Muhammadans, 52,684; and Jains, 21,oo6.
There are 3 towns and 666 villages, the capital of the State being
The land produces both garden and `dry crops.' Irrigation is
provided by draw-wells, by artificial tanks, and by aqueducts from rivers.
The total cultivable area is 1,96o square miles, 1,717 square miles
being under crops in 1903-4, of which 117 square miles were irrigated.
Survey operations are in progress in the State. The principal products
are grain and cotton. jowar, bajra, wheat, and gram are the staple
food-crops. Wheat is produced without irrigation. At Rawal about
3,ooo acres are irrigated for rice. Cotton, sugar-cane, and tobacco are