246 ORCHHA STATE
each worker per diem. The village artisans, blacksmiths, carpenters,
who keep the agricultural implements in order, receive shares of each
The forests of Orchha, though covering a large area, are not of any
particular value, consisting mostly of small trees and scrub. The trees
are divided into three classes, those in the first class, which are of
value for their timber or fruit, being alone `reserved.' The first class
contains teak (Tectona grandis), achkr (Buchanania latifolia), tendu
(Diospyros tomentosa), bel (Aegle Harmelos), and huradai (Cleistan-
thus collinus) ; the second class, seja (Lagerstroemia parviflora), hhair
(Acacia Catechu), nim (Afelia 4zadirachta), reunja (Acacia leucohhloea) ;
the third class, chhiula (Butea frondosa) and salai (Boswellia serrata).
The forest work is done by the jungle tribe of Saharias.
Though trade has increased considerably of late years, it is not yet in
a flourishing condition owing to want of communications. Grain, ghi,
and coarse cotton cloth are the chief exports, being sent to Bombay
and Cawnpore. A little iron is still smelted in a few places, but the
industry has almost died out, the guns formerly manufactured in some
quantity being now no longer in demand. In the State workshop at
Tikamgarh a combined saw-mill, lathe, planing machine, and flour-mill
are worked by steam.
Means of communication are the Jhansi-Bhopal and Jhansi-Manikpur
sections of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, with stations at Orchha,
Arjar, and Teharka. The only metalled roads are the high road from
Jhansi to Nowgong, which traverses the Tahrauli pargana, the feeder
road from Orchha railway station to Orchha town, and that from
Tikamgarh which meets the road from Lalitpur. There was no postal
system of any kind in the State until 1895. A regular State service
was then instituted, with an office at each police station. An issue of
stamps was also made. British post offices are maintained at Tikam-
garh, Baldeogarh, and Jatara, and telegraph offices at the Orchha, Arjar,
and Teharka railway stations.
The State is divided into five parganas, each under a tahsildar, who
is magistrate and revenue collector for his charge. The tahsil head-
quarters are at Baldeogarh, Jatara, Orchha, Tahrauli, and Tikamgarh.
The largest tahsil is Jatara, with an area of 6oo square miles, while the
others average goo. The administration is divided into three depart-
ments, dealing respectively with the chiefs personal establishment, the
general administration, and military matters. The Maharaja is assisted
by a minister, entitled the Maddr-ul-Muhdm, who has immediate con-
trol of administrative machinery. All matters are referred for final
orders to the chief. In judicial cases the chief has full powers of life
and death over his subjects, and all final appeals are heard by him.
The subordinate criminal and civil courts are more or less modelled