ORCHHA TO WN 247
on those of British India, the Penal Code being used as a general guide
in issuing local regulations. Cases relating to caste are referred to the
Panchdyat (deliberative committee).
The State has a normal revenue of 7 lakhs, besides 1-6 lakhs
assigned to the jdgirddrs. The land revenue is for the most part
farmed out to headmen, who are responsible for the collections, though
the leases are granted directly by the State to the cultivators. The
expenditure is about 6•5 lakhs. Since 1877 several rough settlements
have been made, but only for short periods, the last being in 1902.
The land is assessed according to quality, the rates varying for irrigated
mota land from Rs. 8 to Rs. 4-8, for _parua land from Rs. 3-3-2 to
R s. 2, and for unirrigated mota land from Rs. 4 to RS. 2-6-5 per acre.
The incidence of land revenue demand is Rs. 1-2-5 per acre of culti-
vated area, and R. o-8-9 per acre of the total area. Excise is given
out on contract as a monopoly, and brings in Rs. 14,4oo a year.
The conversion of the Orchha coinage has not yet been undertaken,
the Gajja shdhi rupee minted at Tikamgarh being still the principal
currency. The mint was originally situated at Orchha, but was trans
ferred when the capital was changed. Gold, silver, and copper coins
are struck at this mint.
The regular army consists of 250 cavalry and i,ooo infantry, and ioo
gunners with 9o serviceable guns. The irregulars assist in policing
the State, in addition to 150 regular police and 402 chauhiddrs. A
Central jail is maintained at Tikamgarh.
Orchha, like other States in Bundelkhand, is backward in educa-
tion, only a little over i per cent. of the population being returned
as literate in igoi. The Mahendra school, opened in 1866, prepares
boys for the entrance examination of the Allahabad University. There
are also 8 village schools with 234 pupils, and one girls' school with
40 pupils. The annual expenditure on education is Rs. 3,300. One
hospital has been opened at Tikamgarh and vaccination is carried out,
the annual cost of the medical establishment being Rs. 2,500.
Orchha. Town.-Former capital of the State of the same name,
in Central India, situated in 25° 21' N. and 780 38' E., 3f miles from
a station on the jhansi-Manikpur section of the Great Indian Peninsula
Railway. Population (1901), 1,830. The town, which was founded
by Bharti Chand in 1531, stands on the very edge of the Betwa river
in a hollow surrounded by scrub jungle. In 1634 the jungle must
have been of considerable thickness, as in spite of its low position the
Mughals found it a difficult place to approach. In 1178,3 Vikramajit
removed the capital to TIKAMGARH, and since that time Orchha has
rapidly fallen into decay. It is now of interest only on account of its
magnificent buildings, of which the finest were erected by Bir Singh
lleo. On an island in the Betwa, which has been surrounded by