while the hharal is generally utilized for garden produce, which needs
heavy manuring in order to produce a good crop, the soil being
naturally poor. The soils at the foot of the range of hills running across
the District are especially fertile, containing the rain-washed detrital
matter from the rocks above, and having all the properties of alluvium.
The tenure of lands is mainly ryotwdH. In 19o1, out of a total area
of 2,627 square miles of hhdlsa and crown lands, 1,813 were cultivated,
of which only 76 were irrigated. Cultivable waste and fallows
occupied 648 square miles, while 166 were not available for cultiva
tion. The staple food-grain is jowar, grown on 70 per cent. of the net
area cropped. Wheat, rice, and 8hjra are next in importance, the
areas under each being respectively '75, 37, and 29 square miles.
Cotton is grown in all the taluhs, and the total area occupied by it is
about 56 square miles. Sugar-cane is raised in small quantities with
well-irrigation, the area under this crop being slightly less than
1o square miles.
Since the last settlement in 1883, which resulted in the taking up of
all the available lands by the ryots, no extension of holdings has been
possible. The ryots have shown no interest in the introduction of new
varieties of seed or of improved agricultural implements.
No particular breed of cattle is characteristic of the District, but
those found are strong and robust, and well suited for deep ploughing,
which is essential to the heavy loamy and argillaceous soils prevalent.
Sheep and goats of the common kind are reared. Ordinary ponies are
to be had for from RS. 20 to Rs. 30 ; but the better sort, well-known
for their staying powers and sure-footedness, fetch as much as Rs. Yoo.
For some years past, the State has kept two Arab stallions at Osman-
abad and one at Parenda, for the purpose of improving the local breed.
The irrigated area amounts to only about 76 square miles, supplied
by wells, of which 8,8oo are in good repair. Such tanks as exist are
used for drinking purposes only, while the beds of the rivers are too
low to permit of their water being used for cultivation.
There are no minerals of any economic value, beyond the ordinary
granite and basaltic rock, used in building and road-metalling. Near
Katri, Kamta, and Wadgaon in the Osmanabad tdluk, reddish earth is
found, which is used by the Hindus for plastering floors.
No important industry is carried on in the District. Coarse cotton
cloth and dhotis, sdras, and cholis used to be manufactured locally, but
for some years past cloth of all kinds and yarn have
communications. imported at cheaper rates. The shepherds
usually manufacture blankets from the wool of their
sheep, which are sold at from Rs. 2 to Rs. 3 apiece. At Latur in the
Owsa tdluk, which is a large trade centre, a small ginning-mill was
erected in 1889, and two more have been started since igoi. There