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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 19, p. 275.

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The First Talukdar is the head of the police, with a Superintendent
(Mohtamim) as his executive deputy. Under him are 8 inspectors,
41 subordinate officers, 376 constables, and 35 mounted police. These
are distributed among 16 police stations, and guard the tdluk treasuries.
A small special police establishment, called the rakhwdli, guards carts
carrying merchandise, and any cattle or animals that bivouac at certain
appointed places. This force is paid out of funds collected from the
cartmen and owners of cattle at fixed rates. There is a District jail at
Osmanabad, besides lock-ups in the outlying tdluks. Only short-term
prisoners are now kept in the District jail, those whose terms exceed
six months being sent to the Central jail at Gulbarga.
Osmanabad occupies a fairly high position as regards the literacy of
its population, of whom 3-1 per cent. (6 males and 0-12 females) could
read and write in igor. There were 44 public educational institutions
in 1903- Of these, 12 were State and 32 local board schools. The
number of pupils under instruction in 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1903 was
947; 2)055 3,407, and 2,839 respectively, including 74 girls in 1903 ;
no information is available regarding private schools. Of the 12 schools
managed by the Educational department, 3 were girls' schools with 77
pupils, and 5 were secondary boys' schools. The first State school was
opened in 1866, and the local board schools were started after the
establishment of the local boards in 1888. The total amount spent on
education in 1901 was Rs. z6,ooo, of which Rs. 16,6oo was met from
State funds and the remainder from Local funds; of this sum 52 per
cent. was devoted to primary schools. The fee receipts for the year
were Rs. 1,102.
The District has one hospital and three dispensaries, with accom-
modation for 40 in-patients. In 1901, 23,900 cases were treated, of
whom 104 were in-patients, and 391 operations were performed. The
expenditure was Rs. ro,8oo, of which Rs. 9,400 was paid by the State,
and the balance by the local boards.
In 1901 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 1,516,
or 3 per r,ooo of the population. Vaccination is gaining favour with
the people, though slowly.
OsmanabAd Taluk.-Crown tdluk in the centre of Osmanabad
District, Hyderabad State, formerly known as Dharasco. Its area,
including jdgirs, is 417 square miles; and the population in 1901 was
77,533, compared with 92,829 in 1891, the decrease being due to the
famine of rgoo. It contains two towns, OSMANABAD (population,
10,607), the head-quarters of the District and tdluk, and THAIR
(7,327); and 87 villages, of which 9 are jdgir. The land revenue
in 1901 amounted to 1-5 lakhs. Osmanabad is composed wholly of
rear or black cotton soil.
OsmAnabad Town.-Head-quarters of the District and tdluk of
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