O UDS 277
76° 26' and 76° 33' E., 39 square miles in extent, and at an average
elevation of 3,000 feet above sea-level, below the south-western wall of
the Nilgiri plateau. It takes its name from Colonel J. Ouchterlony,
R.E., who made the first survey of the Nilgiris in the fourth decade of
the last century and wrote a valuable memoir upon the District. The
valley is now an important centre of coffee, tea, and cinchona cultiva-
tion, though the whole neighbourhood has suffered severely from the
depression in the planting industry and few of the many Europeans
who once resided in it remain. The area under coffee is nearly 4,000
acres, the Guynd estate alone containing an unbroken block of 8oo
acres in full bearing. The population in rgoi was 5,265.
Oudh (Awadh) r.-A British Province, forming part of the UNITED
PROVINCES, lying between 2-5° 34' and -28' 42' N. and 79° 41' and
83' 8' E., with an area of 23,966 square miles. Population (rgor),
12,833,077. The name is a corruption of that of the ancient city of
Ajodhya (Ayodhya), which became the seat of a local governor under
the early Muhammadan rulers. Oudh is bounded on the north by
the State of Nepal, and on all other sides by the Province of Agra.
The Gorakhpur and Benares Divisions lie on the east, the Bareilly and
Agra Divisions on the west, and the Allahabad Division on the south.
The river Ganges forms the greater part of the south-western boundary.
Oudh includes portions of two of the great natural
divisions of Upper India. The three northern Dis- Physical
tricts of Kheri, Bahraich, and Gonda stretch up into aspects.
the submontane tract lying below the Himalayas, while the remainder
of the Province lies in the central portion of the Gangetic plain. The
northern boundary of Bahraich and Gonda runs for 6o miles along the
low hills which mark the first rise above the level of the plain; but the
submontane tract or tarai is chiefly distinguished by its greater slope
and excessive moisture, due to a heavier rainfall and the drainage from
the outer ranges of the Himalayas. In the northern portion of the
Province there are large areas of forest land. Geologically, the whole
of Oudh is classified as Gangetic alluvium. No rock or stone is found
except kankar (nodular limestone), which is used for metalling roads.
Gold is obtained in very small quantities by washing sand in the rivers
in the north of the Province. Salt was extensively manufactured
during native rule, but the industry has been prohibited for many years.
The flora is described in the article on the UNITED PROVINCES.
The country slopes from north-west to south-east, and the drainage
follows the same line, being divided into two great river systems, those
of the GOGRA and GANGES, which ultimately unite in Bengal. The
1 This article deals only with matters in which Oudh differs from the rest of the
UNITED Ptt0VINCL+s, to the article on which reference should be made for other