334 1'ALAK0LL U
1Palakollu.-Town in the Narasapur tdluk of Kistna District, Madras,
situated in 16° 31' N. and 81° 44' E., on the Narasapur canal, 6 miles
from Narasapur town and 29 from Nidadavolu, the nearest railway
station. Population (igor), io,848. The Dutch opened a factory
here in the middle of the seventeenth century, and for some time it
was the head-quarters of their establishments on this part of the coast.
It fell to the English in 1783, but the Dutch remained in possession on
payment of a small quit-rent till r804. The place was restored to
Holland by the convention of 1814, but was finally ceded to the
British in 1825. The most interesting relic of the Dutch occupation
is the little cemetery in the heart of the town, which contains inscrip-
tions dating back to 1662. The cultivation of the Batavian orange
and pummelo, introduced by the Dutch settlers, is still a feature of
the place. Palakollu is a flourishing town and the chief market of the
Western Delta of the Godavari, the trade being chiefly in fruit, rice,
and cotton yarn. Local affairs are managed by a Union panchdyat.
Palali.-Petty State in KaTHIAwaR, Bombay.
Palam.-`Crown' taluk in the south of Parbhani District, Hyder-
abad State, with an area of 560 square miles. Including jdgirs, the
population in 1901 was 92,182, compared with 104,904 in 189x,
the decrease being due to the famine of rgoo. ' The tdluk contains
two towns, GANGAKHER (population, 5,007) and SONEPET (5,759)
both being jdgir towns ; and 153 villages, of which 32 are jdgir, and
Pa1an1 (3,306) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 19or was
3-2 lakhs. The Godavari river forms the northern boundary.
Palamau ('a place of refuge').-District in the Chota Nagpur Division
of Bengal, lying between 23' 2o'and 24' 39,* N. and 83' 2o' and 84'
58' E., with an area of 4,914 square miles. It is bounded on the north
by Shahabad and Gaya ; on the east by Gaya, Hazaribagh, and Ranch!;
on the south by Ranch! and the State of Surguja; and on the west
by Surguja and the Mirzapur District of the United Provinces.
The District consists of a confused aggregation of hills, offshoots
from the Chota Nagpur plateau, and of the valleys between them.
The hills run in the main east and west, though
aspects. many are at right angles to the general trend. They
are highest in the south, where they adjoin the
Surguja plateau, and gradually decrease in size towards the north.
The District comprises four distinct tracts, which are roughly conter
minous with the four old fiscal divisions or parganas. By far the
largest is pargana Palamau, which forms the greater portion of the
District, consisting of jungle-clad hills and fertile but narrow valleys.
Pargana Torl is an undulating but in many places highly cultivated
tract, with a few large isolated hills ; until recently it formed part of
the head-quarters subdivision of Ranch! District, and its tenures,