PEN TAL UKA 101
73 39' E., with an area of 432 square miles. There are 227 villages,
but no town. The head-quarters are at Peint. The population in
igoi was 53,392, compared with 59,6oi in 18gr. The density, 124
persons per square mile, is below the District average. The demand
for land revenue in 31903-4 was Rs. 37,ooo, and for cesses RS. 2,500.
In both climate and appearance the tdluka resembles the Konkan.
A maze of hill and valley, except for some rice-fields and patches
of rough hill-side cultivation, Peint is covered over its whole area
with timber, brushwood, and grass. Towards the north, a prominent
range of hills passing westwards at right angles to the main line
of the Western Ghats gives a distinct character to the landscape.
But over the rest of the country ranges of small hills starting up
on all sides crowd together in the wildest confusion, with a general
south-westerly direction, to within 20 miles of the sea-coast, and
divide the valleys of the Daman and Par rivers. The heavy rainfall,
which averages 87 inches annually, the thick forest vegetation, great
variations of temperature, and a certain heaviness of the atmosphere
combine to make the tract unhealthy. The prevailing diseases are
fever and ague. The population consists almost entirely of forest
and hill tribes, nominally Hindus, poor and ignorant, unsettled in
their habits, and much given to the use of intoxicating spirits. Their
language is a corrupt Marathi, with a large mixture of Gujarati words.
A large part of Peint is well suited for grazing, and considerable
numbers of cattle and sheep are exported. The chief products are
timber of various kinds (including bamboos), rice, ndehni, oilseeds,
beeswax, honey, stag-horn, and hides.
The ruling family, by descent Rajputs of the Puar tribe, adopted
many generations back the family name of Dalvi. A branch of the
family embraced Islam in the time of Aurangzeb. During the Maratha
supremacy the Peint estates were for a long period placed under
attachment by the Peshwas. In reward for services rendered in
31818, the family were reinstated in their former position by the
British Government. The last chief, Abdul Momin alias Lakshadir
Dalpat Rao III, died in 1837, leaving only a legitimate daughter,
Begam Nfir Jahan. The State was placed under British management
on the death of the last male chief, but the Begam was allowed a life
pension of Rs. 6,ooo a year, in addition to one-third of the surplus
revenues of the State. On her death in 1878, the State finally lapsed
to the British Government. Harsul, the former place of residence
of the Begam, is situated in 20° 9' N. and 73° 3o' E.
Pempa La.-Pass in the State of Bhutan, situated in 27° 39' N. and
89° 15' E.
Pen Taluka.-North-eastern tdlatka of Kolaba District, Bombay,
lying between 18° 28' and 18° 5o' N. and 73° and 73° 22' E., with