by Sir A. Cotton in 1858. The channels from it supply 64,ooo acres
of land on the right bank. Altogether the river irrigates 155,ooo acres
in this District, yielding a revenue Of 34 lakhs, or about 51, per cent.
upon the capital of 6r lakhs which has been invested. The great
Tungabhadra Project now in contemplation proposes to turn much
of the surplus water of the Tungabhadra into the Penner, and this
water would be utilized in Nellore District by constructing a high
dam across the narrow gap at Somasila and forming a huge reservoir
there. It is calculated that channels from this on both sides of the
river would command 5oo,ooo acres.
The Penner is crossed by the Madras Railway at Penneru in
Anantapur District, and by the East Coast section of the same rail-
way at Nellore, near its mouth.
Penukonda Subdivision. -Subdivision of Anantapur District,
Madras, consisting of the PENUKONDA, DHARMAVARAM, MADAKASIRA,
and HINDUPUR tdluks.
Penukonda Taluk.=Southern tdluk of Anantapur District, Madras,
lying between 13° 54' and 14° 22' N. and 77' 2o' and q8° 2' E., with
an area of 677 square miles. The population in 1901 was 92,482,
compared with 81,104 in 1891. The tdluk contains 96 villages and
one town, PENUKONDA (`big hill') (population, 6,806), the head-
quarters, situated at the base of a large hill from which it takes its
name. It is a place of historical importance, having become the
capital of the fallen Vijayanagar monarch after his overthrow in 1565
at the battle of Talikota. The demand for land revenue and cesses in
1903-4 amounted to Rs. I,56,ooo. It is the most hilly tdluk in the
District, and much of it is consequently quite unfit for cultivation.
There is no black soil, and red and gravelly soils predominate. The
unirrigated crops are cholam and horse-gram, and the irrigated staples
are rice, sugar-cane, and some nigi. The Penner river flows along its
western and the Chitravati along its eastern boundary. At Bukka-
patnam the latter river has been dammed up and a very large tank
formed; but the Penner is at present little utilized for irrigation,
though a project for damming it has been proposed. Seven other
tanks irrigate an area of more than 3oo acres each.
Penukonda Town.-Head-quarters of the subdivision and tdluk
of the same name in Anantapur District, Madras, situated in 14° 5' N.
and 77' 36' E. Population (Igoi), 6,806. It is picturesquely placed
at the foot of a steep, rugged, and strongly fortified hill over 3,000 feet
in height, on the edge of an uneven plain which is flanked and crossed
by smaller elevations of manifold shapes and sizes. From the hill, and
connected with it at both ends, a semicircular line of massive fortifica-
tions stretches out for some distance into the plain, and is washed on
its southern side by a considerable tank. Partly within and partly