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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 137.

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United Provinces, lying between z8 6' and 28' 53' N. and 79 37' and
8o 27' E., with an area of 1,350 square miles. On the north it is
bounded by Naini Tat; on the north-east and east by the State of
Nepal and Kheri District; on the south by Kheri and Shahjahanpur
and on the west by Bareilly. Though separated only by a short:
distance from the outer ranges of the Himalayas, Pilibhit consists
entirely of a level plain, containing depressions but
no hills, and intersected by several streams. The physical
largest river is the SARDA, which, after a long course
through the Himalayas and across the boulder-strewn tract known
as the Bhabar, becomes an ordinary river of the plains at the north-
east corner of the District. It then flows south-east, sometimes
dividing Pilibhit from Nepal, and often giving off smaller channels.
11 few miles south-west of the Sarda is an affluent called the Chauka,
which flows in what was probably an old bed of the main river.
In the centre of the District a long swamp, called the Mala, lies
north and south, dividing it into two distinct portions. The eastern
lahsil of Puranpur contains a large area of forest land, and is remark-
able for its unhealthy climate, the poverty of its inhabitants, and
the instability of cultivation. The river GuMT1 rises in the centre
of this tract, but has a badly-defined bed, consisting of a series of
swamps. West of the Mala conditions are better, and the country
gradually assumes the prosperous appearance of the plains of Rohil:
khand. The Khanaut, Katna, and Deoha are the principal rivers
in this tract.
The District consists almost entirely of alluvium, though the bed
of the Sarda contains gravel and small boulders.
The flora of the District presents no peculiarity. In the north
and east a large forest area is found, consisting chiefly of sal,
which gives place to the ordinary trees of the plains in the south
and west.
In the wilder parts of Puranpur tigers and leopards are numerous,
but elsewhere scarce. Wild hog and deer of various kinds are found
in many parts, and do much damage to the crops. The jackal and
wolf are also common. Black and grey partridge, quail, sand-grouse,
jungle-fowl, peafowl, geese, ducks, and snipe are the commonest
game-birds. The mahseer is found in the Sarda, and fish are com-
mon everywhere.
Fever is endemic throughout the District, and is especially viru-
lent in the swamps near the forests in Puranpur. Except for fever,
Pilibhit is fairly healthy, and its proximity to the hills causes a
more even temperature and cool climate than in the Districts farther
The same cause ensures a copious rainfall, the annual amount
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