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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 151.

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masses of petrified wood, large quantities of animal remains were found
in 1836. Almost all were embedded in the rock in the south-east
corner of the island, where the sea washes bare the lower conglomerate.
The remains are the same as those of Upper Sind and of the Siwalik
Hills. Besides two titanic ruminants, apparently with no living types,
named the Bramatherium and the Sivatherium, there are species of
elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, antelope, several forms
of crocodile, fresh-water tortoises, and fishes of gigantic size.
Pirawa District.-One of the Central India parganas of the State
of Tonk, Rajputana. It is for certain purposes included in the charge
of the Political Agent, Malwa. It has an area of 248 square miles,
and lies between 24 1' and 24 24' N. and 75 51' and q6 11' E.,
being bounded on the north by Indore, on the west by Indore and
Jhalawar, and on the south and east by Gwalior. A group of Indore
villages almost divides the northern from the southern half. The
country is undulating in character, the uplands being chiefly reserved
for grass, while the rich black soil in the valleys yields fine crops.
The population in 19or was 25,286, compared with 40,8o6 in 1891.
There are 126 villages and one town, the head-quarters of the district.
The principal castes are Sondhias, Minas, Dangis, and Chamars,
forming respectively about 20, 14, 9, and 8 per cent. of the total.
Nothing is known of the history of the district prior to the time!
of Akbar, when it formed part of the Kotri-Pirawa sarkdr of the
Subah of Malwa. It was included in the territory bestowed on Ratan.
Singh of Ratlam by Shah Jahan, but when Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh
of Jaipur was Subahdar of Malwa it was transferred to Baji Rao
Peshwa. Subsequently, Holkar took possession; and in 1806 Jaswant
Rao Holkar made it over to Amir Khan, the grant being confirmed
by the British Government under the treaty of 1817. Of the total
area, 210 square miles, or 84 per cent., are khdlsa, paying revenue:
direct to the Tonk Darbar, and the khdlsa area available for cultivation
is about 166 square miles. Of the latter, about 59 square miles, or
35 per cent., were cultivated in 1903-4, the irrigated area being nearly
6 square miles. Of the area cropped, jowdr occupied 58 per cent.,
cotton 9, maize 8, and poppy 6 per cent. The revenue from all
sources is about 1-4 lakhs, of which four-fifths is derived from the
land. The town of Pirawa is situated in 24 9' N. and q6 3' E.,
about 140 miles almost due south of Tonk city. Its population in
r901 was 4,7'71, Hindus forming nearly 50 per cent., Musalmans 31,
and Jains about i9 per cent. The town, which, from the inscriptions
in its Jain temples, appears to date from the eleventh century, contains
a picturesque fort of no great age, a post and telegraph office, a small
jail, a vernacular school, and a dispensary for out-patients.
Piriyapatna. -Town in the Hunsur tdluk of Mysore District,
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