1674. The rise in the price of produce greatly reduced the state
share in the out-turn of the land, and to make good this loss special
cesses were levied on several occasions and under various names. This
system continued till 1758, when, under the rule of Peshwa Balaji
Baj! Rao, a new and very elaborate measurement and settlement were
introduced. In the times of the Peshwas the government collected
its revenues through its own agents; the maximum of the land tax
was fixed and only charged on lands actually under tillage, while
remissions were made in bad seasons. The revenues fluctuated
according to the prosperity of the country. Between 1772 and 18oo,
the years of the administration of Nana Farnavis, the management of
the Peshwa's land revenue was perhaps more efficient than at any
other time. In the reign of Baji Rao II the practice of farming the
revenue for short terms to the highest bidder was introduced. The
charges involved by this system aggravated the evils of its predecessor.
Much hardship resulted from the exactions of these temporary revenue
The assessment introduced at the beginning of British rule when
prices were high pressed heavily on landholders in seasons either of
bad crops or of low prices. Consequently the leading features of the
revenue system before 1856 were high assessment and large remissions.
About 1825, when distress was acute, Mr. Pringle was appointed to
survey the District and revise the assessment. His survey settlement
was introduced over the whole District between 1829 and 1831.
The measure proved a failure, partly from the heaviness and in-
equality of the assessment in a period of bad seasons and partly from
the malpractices of Mr. Pringle's establishment. The defects were
early foreseen and the new sates were soon discontinued. The first
settlement confirmed for thirty years was introduced into the Dis-
trict between 1836 and 1854. About 1855 a regular revenue survey
was undertaken. A revision survey was made and introduced between
1874 and 19oi. This survey found an increase in the cultivable area
of 6 per cent., and the settlement enhanced the total revenue from
about 6 lakhs to 12 lakhs. The average assessment per acre of `dry'
land is 9 annas, rice land RS. 2-7, and of garden land RS. 2.
The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of
revenue from all sources, in thousands of rupees :-
1880-1. 1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4-
Land revenue . 10,.30 16,60 12275 17,88
Total revenue . 18,15 30,00 25,28 34,16
The District has twelve municipalities: namely, POONA CITY and
Poona Suburban, SASVAD, JEJURI, BARAMATI, INDAPUR, SIRUR, TALE-