POONA CITY 181
by local and municipal boards. Of the total, 25 per cent. was expended
on primary schools.
In 1904 the District contained 4 hospitals and 2o dispensaries, pro-
viding accommodation for 252 in-patients. About 145,000 patients,
including 3,573 in-patients, were treated in these, and 5,520 opera-
tions were performed. The total expenditure, excluding the cost of
two of the hospitals and five of the dispensaries, which are maintained.
from private funds, was Rs. 1,47,165, of which Rs. 11,617 was paid.
from local and municipal funds. A lunatic asylum at Poona contained
146 inmates in 1904.
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 27,000,
representing a proportion of 27 per i,ooo of population, which is much
above the average for the Presidency.
[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xviii (1885) ; W. W. Loch,
Historical Account of the Poona, Scitara, and Sholapur Districts (1877).
Poona City (Punts).-Head-quarters of Poona District, Bombay,
situated in 18° 31' N. and 73° 51' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula
Railway, 119 miles south-east of Bombay, and a terminus of the
Southern Mahratta Railway; 1,850 feet above the level of the sea,
and, in a straight line, about 63 miles from the coast. The name
seems to be derived from the Sanskrit punyapur, or `cleanser,' pro-
bably referring to the holy meeting of the Mutha and Mula rivers.
It is the military capital of the Deccan, and from June to October the
seat of the Government of Bombay.
During the last fifty years Poona has been steadily growing in size.
In 1851 its population was returned at 73,209; by 1863 it was sup-
posed to have risen to about 8o,ooo. At the next three enumerations
it was: (1872) 118,886, (1881) 129,751, and (i89i) 161,390. In 1901
it was returned at I11,38i, exclusive of 41,939 in the cantonment and
suburbs; total, 153,320. Hindus numbered 122,393 ; Muhammadans,
18,05 ; Christians, 8,474; Parsis, i,9oo ; and Jains, 1,473.
With the heat of April and May tempered by a sea-breeze, a
moderate rainfall, and strong cool winds, the climate is agreeable, but
of late years it has not been reputed to be healthy. The annual rain-
fall for 18gi-igoi averaged 28 inches. The mean temperature in
i9oi was 70°; maximum iyo° (in May), minimum 43° (in December).
Poona has suffered severely from the plague, which first gained a foot
hold in the city in January, 1897. In 1899 the mortality rose to 125
per week, or an annual death-rate of 207 per i,ooo. Severe repressive
measures in 1897 failed to eradicate the epidemic.
The first mention of Poona in history seems to be in 1604, when it
was granted by the Sultan of Ahmadnagar to Maloji, the grandfather
of Sivaji. In 1637 the grant was confirmed in favour of Shabji, father
of Sivaji. In 1663, during the operations conducted against Sivaji by