POONA CITY 183
excess of this is paid for at the rate of 3 annas per i,ooo gallons.
The old water-works owe their existence to the liberality of Sir Jamsetji
jijibhoy of Bombay, who contributed Rs. r,75,00o towards the entire
cost of Rs. 2,00,000. The new water-works for the Poona cantonment
and suburbs were constructed in 1873-4, and were furnished with
new settling-tanks and filter-beds in 1894-5. The maximum daily
consumption from these works is 1,700,000 gallons. The pumping
station is situated to the east of St. Mary's Church, the power being
passed from a Poncelet wheel to three centrifugal pumps on the right
bank of the canal and to a Worthington water engine on the left bank.
There are five settling-tanks, with a total capacity equivalent to three
days' consumption, and four filter-beds with an area of 45,000 square
feet. Water is pumped from the canal into the settling-tanks and
thence into the filter-beds by means of centrifugal pumps. Two
reservoirs supply the cantonments and suburbs, the charge for water
by meter varying from 6 to 8 annas per r,ooo gallons, according as
the cost of pipes and connexions is borne by the householder.or not.
For three or four months in the hot season very little water is available,
and pumping has to be performed almost entirely by steam-power:
Gardens on every side, and groves of acacia along the banks of
the rivers, give much of the neighbourhood a green, well-clothed
The city proper extends along the Mutha for about i 2 miles in-
land, varying in height from 30 to 70 feet above the river. Its length
is about 2 miles from east to west, and its breadth about 14 miles,
the total area being 21 square miles. For police and other purposes
the city is divided among eighteen wards or peths. Under the Peshwas
it was divided into seven quarters, named after the days of the week.
The ruined palace of the Peshwas stands in the Shanwar quarter,
or Saturday ward. The palace was burned down in 1827, and all that
now remains is the fortified wall. The chief streets run north and
south. Though broad in parts they are all more or less crooked,
none of them offering an easy carriage-way from one end to the other.
From east to west the only thoroughfare is by lanes, narrow, short, and
interrupted. One of these was set apart for the execution of criminals,
who, in the time of the Peshwas, were here trampled to death by
elephants. Most of the houses are of more than one storey, their
walls built of a framework of wood filled in with brick or mud, and
with roofs of tile.
East of the city is the military station, with an area of 4" square;
miles and a population of 32,777. Within cantonment limits, north-
wards to the Mutha-Mula river and for 2 miles along the road leading
west to the cantonment of Kirkee, are the houses of the greater part
of the European population. The remaining European quarter or