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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 273.

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Sikh War. The Sikh leaders having resolved on war, their army,
6o,ooo strong, with 150 guns, advanced towards the British frontier, and
crossed the Sutlej in December, 1845. The details of the campaign
are sufficiently known. On December 18 the first action was fought at
Mudki, in which the Sikhs attacked the troops in position, but were
defeated with heavy loss. Three days afterwards followed the toughly
contested battle of Ferozeshah; on January 22, 1846, the Sikhs were
again defeated at Aliwal ; and finally, on February io, the campaign was
ended by the capture of the Sikh entrenched position at Sobraon. The
British army marched unopposed to Lahore, which was occupied on
February 22, and terms of peace were dictated. These were, briefly,
the cession in full sovereignty to the British Government of the territory
lying between the Sutlej and the Beds rivers, and a war indemnity of
r a millions sterling. As the Lahore Darbar was unable to pay the
whole of this sum, or even to give satisfactory security for the payment
of one million, the cession was arranged of all the hill country between
the Beds and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara ; arrangements
were made for the payment of the remaining half-million of war indem-
nity, for the disbandment of the Lahore army, and its reorganization
on a reduced scale. The other terms included the cession of the
control of both banks of the Sutlej ; the recognition of the independent
sovereignty of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu ; a free passage through
Sikh territory for British troops ; and the establishment of a. British
Resident at Lahore. In addition, at the request of the Lahore Govern-
ment, it was settled that a British force should remain at Lahore for
a time to assist in the reconstitution of a satisfactory administration.
Simultaneously, a treaty was executed with Maharaja Gulab Singh by
which the English made over to him in sovereignty the Kashmir
territory ceded by the Lahore government, in consideration of a pay-
ment of three-quarters of a million sterling. Shortly afterwards diffi-
culties arose regarding the transfer of Kashmir, which the Sikh governor,
instigated by Lal Singh, the chief of the Lahore Darbar, resisted by
force of arms. Lal Singh was deposed and exiled to British India ;
and in December, 1846, a fresh treaty was concluded, by which the
affairs of the State were to be carried on by a Council of Regency,
under the direction and control of the British Resident, during the
minority of the young Maharaja Dalip Singh.
For a time the work of reorganizing the shattered government of the,
country proceeded quietly and with every prospect of success. But
besides many minor causes of discontent among the people, such as
the withdrawal of the prohibition against the killing of kine, and the
restored liberty of the much-hated and formerly persecuted Muham-
madans, the villages were filled with the disbanded soldiery of the old
Sikh army, who were only waiting for a signal and a leader to rise and.
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