to a diminished birth-rate. The famine of x899-i9oo lasted exactly
thirteen months from September, 1899. Up to December the birth.
rate was fairly normal, but after that month it rapidly declined until the
close of the famine. In July, igoo, it was only 22•3 per I,ooo, as com-
pared with 40•5, the annual average for the month in the five years
1891-5. On the other hand, the re-establishment of normal con-
ditions, after famine, is followed by an abnormally high birth-rate.
Thus, in Hissar, famine ended in August, 1897. Up to July, 1898,
the birth-rate remained low; but it then rose rapidly and remained
well above the average until September, 1899, the highest figures
occurring in October and November, 1898, when they reached 81•7
and 76-7 per I,ooo, as compared with 57 and 50-8 respectively, the
averages for those two months in 1891-5.
' Whether it will ever be possible to render the Punjab free from
liability to famine is a difficult question at present to answer. The
two great remedies are the extension of railways and irrigation. As
to the former, from the point of view of famine protection, the Pro-
vince is as a whole well off, and further schemes are in hand for
facilitating distribution of the immense surplus stocks produced in
the large canal colonies. As to the _latter, much has been done and
much more is in contemplation. The Chenab and Jhelum Canals, by
rendering cultivable vast areas of waste, have been of incalculable help
in reducing the pressure on the soil in the most thickly populated
Districts, and in increasing the productive power of the Province;
but, until the insecure tracts themselves are rendered safe by the
extension to them of irrigation, scarcity and famine must be appre-
hended. The new Upper Jhelum, Upper Chenab, and Lower Bari
Doab Canals have been described above (pp. 304-5)-
On the annexation of the Punjab in March, 1849, a Board of
Administration was constituted for its government. The Board was
abolished in February, 1853, its powers and func- Administration. being vested in a Chief Commissioner, assisted .
by a judicial and a Financial Commissioner. After the transfer
of the Delhi territory from the North-Western (now the United)
Provinces, the Punjab and its dependencies were formed into a
Lieutenant-Governorship, Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Com-
missioner, being appointed Lieutenant-Governor on January i, x859.
In this office he was succeeded by Sir Robert Montgomery (1859),
Sir Donald McLeod (1865), Sir Henry Durand (1870), Sir Henry
Davies (1871), Sir Robert Egerton (r877), Sir Charles Aitchison
(1882), Sir James Lyall (1887), Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick (1892), Sir Mack-
worth Young (1897), Sir Charles Rivaz (1902), Sir Denzil Ibbetson
(1907), and Sir Louis Dane (I9o8).
In 1866 the judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court.
VOL. XX. V