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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 332.


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332
PUNJAB
A Settlement Commissioner was shortly afterwards appointed to super-
vise the land revenue settlements; but this office was abolished in 11884,
and a Second Financial Commissioner appointed. In 1897, however,
the old arrangement was reverted to, a Settlement Commissioner re-
placing the Second Financial Commissioner.
The direct administrative functions of Government are performed by
the Lieutenant-Governor through the medium of a Secretariat, which
comprises a chief secretary, a secretary, and two under-secretaries.
These are usually members of the Indian Civil Service. The following
are the principal heads of departments: the Financial Commissioner,
the Inspector-General of Police, the Director of Public Instruction,
the Inspector-General of Prisons, the Inspector-General of Civil
Hospitals, the Sanitary Commissioner, the Conservator of Forests, the
Accountant-General, and the Postmaster-General. The last two repre-
sent Imperial departments under the Government of India. The
heads of the two branches (Irrigation, and Roads and Buildings)
of the Public Works department are also ev-gJ~Wo secretaries to
Government, and the heads of the Police and Educational departments
are similarly under-secretaries in their respective departments. The
Financial Commissioner, who has a senior, a junior, and an assistant
secretary, controls the Settlement Commissioner, the Commissioner
of Excise (also Superintendent of Stamps), the Director of Agriculture,
the Director of.Land Records (also Inspector-General of Registration),
and the Conservator of Forests. He is also the Court of Wards for
the Province.
The civil administration is carried on by the Punjab Commission, a
body of officers now recruited exclusively from the Indian Civil Service,
though prior to the constitution of the North-West Frontier Province
one-fourth of the cadre was drawn from the Indian Staff Corps. The
Commission is supplemented by the Provincial Civil Service, which is
recruited in the Province either by nomination, or by examination, or by
a combination of the two, and is almost entirely of Punjabi origin.
With a few exceptions, the higher appointments in the administration
are held exclusively by members of the Punjab Commission, while mem-
bers of the Provincial service, who are graded as Extra or as Extra-
Judicial Assistant Commissioners, perform the functions of District
judges, magistrates, and revenue officials. The minor posts in the
administration are held by the Subordinate services, which are recruited
entirely from natives of the Province.
The territories under the control of the Lieutenant-Governor consist(
Of 29 Districts, grouped into 5 Divisions, and 43 Native States. Each;
District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, who is subordinate
to the Commissioner in charge of the Division. A District is divided
into sub-collectorates called tahsils, varying in number as a rule from
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