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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 333.


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ADMINLSTXA TION
333
three to seven, each under a lahsildar with a naib (deputy)-tahsilddr.
Of the 29 Districts, Kangra, with an area of 9,978 square miles, is the
largest, and Simla, in area less than the county of London, the smallest.
The average District corresponds in size with one of the larger English
counties. In population Lahore, with 1,162,109, is the largest, and
Simla, with 40,351, again the smallest District. The average population
of a District is 701,046. Particulars regarding each Division, District,
and State will be found in Table III on pp. 380-i. For purposes of
criminal, civil, and revenue jurisdiction, the District is the unit of ad-
ministration. The Deputy-Commissioner (as the officer in charge of a
District is designated, the Punjab being a non-Regulation Province) is
Collector, with judicial powers in revenue suits, and also District Magis-
trate, being usually invested as such with power to try all offences not
punishable with death. The District staff includes a District judge,
whose work is almost entirely civil, though he is also ordinarily invested
with magisterial powers, which he exercises in subordination to the
District Magistrate. It also includes from three to seven Assistant or
Extra-Assistant Commissioners, with criminal, civil, and revenue
powers, of whom one is in charge of the treasury. It further includes
one or more Munsifs or civil judges. The tahsilddrs are invested with .
revenue, criminal, and civil powers, and their assistants, the naib-tahsil-
ddrs, with revenue and criminal powers. In ten Districts there are
subdivisions, each consisting of one or two outlying lahsils, in charge of
an Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioner, who resides at the head-
quarters of his jurisdiction. Lahore city also forms a subdivision, and
subdivisional officers are posted to the hill stations of Murree and
Dalhousie during the hot season. As a rule, however, there is no inter-

mediate link between the District and the tahsil. In two tahsils a sub
tahsil exists in charge of a naib-tahsilddr. The tahsilddr has under
him from two to five field kdnungos, each of whom supervises twenty to
thirty patzvdris or revenue accountants, in charge of the revenue records
of a group of villages. Each village has one or more headmen, who
collect the revenue, and chaukiddrs or watchmen. In most Districts
the villages are grouped into circles or zails, each under a non-official
(zailddr) of local influence, whose duty it is to render general assistance
to all Government officials. Commissioners of Divisions now exercise
judicial powers only in revenue appeals, their civil and criminal jurisdic-
tion having been transferred to the Divisional and Sessions judges.
The Native States under the control of the Lieutenant-Governor of
the Punjab are 43 in number, comprising an area of 36,532 square
miles, and a population in 1901 of 4,424,398 persons, as shown in
Table III on pp. 380-1, with a total revenue of 155 lakhs. Kashmir,
formerly included among the Punjab States, was placed under the direct
political control of the Government of India in 1877. Of the 43 States,
Y 2
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