Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. Introductory Notes page.
NOTES ON TRANSLITERATION
a has the sound of a in `woman.'
â has the sound of a in `father.'
e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.'
i has the sound of i in `pin.'
i has the sound of i in police.'
o has the sound of o in `bone.'
u has the sound of u in `bull.'
û has the sound of u in ° flute.'
ai has the vowel-sound in mine.'
an has the vowel-sound in ' house.'
It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in `bet' and `hot' in
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary
to mark vowels as long in, cases where mistakes in pronunciation
were not likely to be made.
Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con-
sonants, such as d, t, r, &c., marked in scientific works by the use
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir-
able to embarrass the reader with them; and only two notes are.
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly,
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common; and,
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of
th in `this' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in I woodhouse'
and ` boathook.'
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