28 RAE BAREL╬ DISTRICT
cent. Eastern Hindi is spoken by almost the entire population, the
dialect in use being Awadhi.
The Hindu castes most largely represented are: Ahirs (graziers and
cultivators), 129,000; Pasis (toddy-drawers and cultivators), r07,000;
Brahmans, 105,000; Chamars (tanners, labourers, and cultivators),
98,ooo ; Rajputs or Chhattris, 67,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 64,000 ;
Muraos (market-gardeners), 48,000; and Kurmis (agriculturists), 44,000.
Among Musalmans are Gtljars, 13,000; Shaikhs, 9,ooo ; Pathans,
9,ooo; and Rajputs, 8,ooo. Agriculture supports 76 per cent. of the
total population. RÓjputs or Chhattris hold two-thirds of the District,
the Bais and Kanhpuria clans being the largest landholders. Ahirs,
Brahmans, and Rajputs or Chhattris are the most numerous cultivators;
but Lodhas, Kurmis, and Muraos are the most skilful.
There were 97 native Christians in 19x1, of whom 68 were Metho-
dists and io belonged to the Anglican communion. A branch of the
American Methodist Mission was opened in 1864 and closed in 1901 ;
but native catechists are still employed at a few places.
The low land in the valley of the Ganges, called kachhÓr, varies in
width from two miles to a few yards. The lowest portion is flooded
Agriculture. during the rains, but generally bears good crops in
the spring; the higher stretches are very fertile, and
occasionally autumn crops can be sown in them. The uplands vary
according to the class of soil. In the south it is a rich firm loam,
producing wheat and poppy in the spring and millets in the autumn,
As the jhils are approached, the soil becomes heavier, and rice is the
prevailing crop, which is followed in spring by gram and linseed.
Large patches of barren zlsar are common here. The valley of the
Sai and its tributaries resembles that of the Ganges, but is inferior in
quality. North of the Sai is another large area of rice land, producing
also inferior spring crops.
The tenures by which land is held are those common to the Province
of OUDH. About two-thirds of the District is included in talukddri
estates, and 5 per cent. of the total area is sub-settled. Under-
proprietors also hold about 5 per cent. The main agricultural statistics
for 1903-4 are shown below, in square.miles:-
Tahsil. Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. Cultivable
Rde Barely 37, 216 94 70
Dalmau . 472 256 123 76
Mah5,rajganj . 465 233 129 77
Salon . 440 241 123 58
Total 1,748 946 469 281
Rice is the crop most largely grown, covering 268 square miles,