of dtwdn or minister to his brother, a position which was inherited
by his descendants. The two branches were distinguished as the
Udawats and Dudawats. Chhatar Singh, who followed Uddji, died
in 1661, his son Mohan Singh succeeding as a minor, and the State
being administered by Diwan Ajab Singh of the Dudawat branch. He
died in 1668, and was succeeded as minister by his son Paras Ram.
The new minister was suspected of having designs on the State, which
gave rise to endless disputes. In 1681 these differences became acute,
and a division was effected, by which Paras Ram received the territory
that now forms the Narsinghgarh State. In the disturbances caused
by the Maratha and Pindāri inroads of the eighteenth century, Rājgarh
and Narsinghgarh became tributary to Sindhia and Holkar respectively.
At the settlement of Mālwā by Sir John Malcolm in 1818, a treaty was
mediated between Sindhia and the Rajgarh chief Newal Singh, by
which Talen and several other villages were made over to Sindhia in
payment of his claims for tribute against the Rawat, while a written
agreement was executed by the chief, giving to the British Government
alone the right to intervene in the affairs of the State. Talen and the
other villages were, however, returned by Sindhia in 1834. In 1880
transit duties on salt were abolished, for which a compensatory payment
of Rs. 618-12 is made annually by the British Government, and four
years later all similar dues except those on opium were done away
with. Banne Singh, the present chief, succeeded in 1902. He bears
the hereditary titles of His Highness and Raja, and is entitled to a
salute of i i guns. He was created K.C.I.E. in 1908.
The population of the State was: (1881) 122,641, (1891) rr9,489,
and (igoi) 88,376, giving a density Of 94 persons per square mile.
During the last decade there has been a decrease of 26 per cent., owing
to the severe famine of 1899-igoo. The State contains two towns,
Rt1JGARH (population, 5,399), the capital, and BIAORA (5,607) ; and
622 villages. Hindus number 78,343, or 89 per cent. ; Musalmans,
4,925, or 6 per cent.; Animists (chiefly Bhils), 4,788, or 5 per cent.
The Malwi dialect of Rajasthani is the most prevalent. The most
numerous castes are Chamars (lo,ooo), Rajputs (7,8oo), Dangis (3,8oo),
and GCijars and Balais (each 3,ooo). Of the ,total population, 46 per
cent. are supported by agriculture and 21 per cent. by general labour.
About 234 square miles, or 25 per cent. of the total area, are under
cultivation, of which 17 square miles are irrigable. Of the unculti-
vated area 88 square miles are cultivable, 336 under forest, and the
rest is waste. Wheat occupies roi square miles, or 43 per cent. of
the area under cultivation, jo7edr 47 square miles, maize 35, cotton
20, gram 16, and poppy 4.
'The most important articles of trade are grain and opium. The
principal road is that from Rajgarh to Sehore, 57 miles in length, by