RAMPUR STATE 183
country is dotted with groves of mango-trees. There are many groves
of ber (Zizyphus Jujuba).
Leopards are not uncommon, and tigers have frequently been killed
along the northern frontier. Game is fairly abundant. Hog, antelope,
w1gai, hares, partridges, quail, wild duck, florican, and small sand-
grouse are found more or less throughout the territory ; but snipe are
scarce. Rampur is celebrated for its breed of hounds, originally
introduced from Southern India. They are generally of a grey colour,
with a smooth coat, and larger than English greyhounds. An improved
variety is now obtained by crossing with English greyhounds, and the
animals so bred are easier to train than the pure breed.
Regular meteorological records have been kept for only a few years.
The climate resembles that of the neighbouring Districts of BAREILLY,
MORADABAD, and the submontane portion of NAIN) TAL. The north
is very malarious.
The early history of the State is that of ROHILKHAND. Two Rohilla
brothers, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, came in the latter part of the
seventeenth century to seek service under the.Mughal History.
emperor. The son of the first of these, Daud Khan,
distinguished himself in the Maratha wars and received a grant of land
near Budaun. His adopted son, Ali Muhammad, obtained the title
of Nawab and a grant of the greater part of Rohilkhand in 1719.
Having offended the Subahddr of Oudh, Safdar Jang, who was jealous
of his rapid rise to power, Ali Muhammad was compelled to surrender all
his possessions in 1745 and was kept a close prisoner at Delhi for six
months, after which he was released and appointed governor of the
Mughal province of Sirhind, where he remained for a year. But taking
advantage oŁ the confusion consequent on the invasion of Ahmad Shah
Durrani, he regained supremacy over Rohilkhand in 1748, and eventually
obtained a confirmation of this territory from the emperor, Ahmad Shah
Bahadur. After the death of Ali Muhammad his estates were divided
among his sons, and the jdgir of Rampur Kotera fell to Faiz-ullah Khan,
the younger son. On the incursion of the Marathas, the Rohilla chiefs
applied for aid to the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. This was granted on
promise of a payment of 40 lakhs. The Rohillas, however, failed to
fulfil their pecuniary obligations ; and the Nawab Wazir obtained from
Warren Hastings the use of a British army, which defeated the Rohillas
and brought Rohilkhand under the direct rule of Oudh. An exception,
however, was made in the case of Faiz-ullah Khan, who was permitted
to retain the estate or jdgir of Rampur on condition of military service.
This obligation was afterwards commuted for a cash payment of 15 lakhs.
On the death of Faiz-ullah Khan in 1793 dissensions broke out in the
family, the eldest son was murdered, and the estate usurped by a younger
son. As it was held under British guarantee, the aid of British troops