in zamindiiri villages, where Rs. 8 to Rs. 1o is often charged for an acre
of first-class low land. The uplands, when not paying cash rent, are
usually liable to the payment of produce rent known as rukumat, which
varies a good deal in different parts, and the cultivators are liable to
give a certain amount of free labour (beth begdr) to the landlord.
The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees:-
1880-1. 1890-r. 1900-1-* 1903-4-
Land revenue . 95 1,06 4.8 52
Total revenue . 4,91 7,14 5,93 6,61
* The diminution in the receipts is due to the fact that Palamau was formed
into a separate District in 1892.
Outside the municipalities of RANCHI and LOHARDAGA, local affairs are
managed by the District board. In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 1,04,000,
including Rs. 39,ooo derived from rates; and the expenditure was
Rs. i,o9,ooo, the chief items being Rs. 50;000 spent on public works
and Rs. 39,000 on education.
The District contains 16 police stations or thanas and r6 outposts.
In 1903 the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted
of 3 inspectors, 33 sub-inspectors, 42 head constables, and 352 con-
stables; there was, in addition, a rural police force of 24 daffadars and
2,442 rhaukiddrs. The District jail at Ranch! has accommodation for
217 prisoners, and a subsidiary jail at Gumla for 21.
Education is backward, only 2-7 per cent. of the population (5•1 males
and o-5 females) being able to read and write in r9or. Great progress
is now being made, and the number of pupils under instruction rose
from 12,569 in 1892-3 to 19,132 in 19oo-i. In 1903-4, 19,074 boys
and 2,514 girls were at school, being respectively 2a-o and 2-7 per cent.
of the children of school-going age. There were in that year 85 7 schools,
including 15 secondary, 825 primary, and 17 special schools. The most
important of these are the District schools, the German Evangelistic
Lutheran Mission high school, the first-grade training school, the
Government industrial school, and the blind school, all in Ranch! town.
The expenditure in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,55,000, of which Rs. 19,ooo was
derived from Provincial revenues, Rs. 38,000 from District funds,
Rs. 700 from municipal funds, RS. 22,000 from fees, and Rs. 75,000
from other sources.
The District contains 6 dispensaries, of which 3 possess accommo-
dation for 49 in-patients. The cases of 18,348 out-patients and 369
in-patients were treated in 1903, and 768 operations were performed.
The expenditure was Rs. r 8,ooo, of which Rs. r, i oo was contributed
by Government, Rs. i,ooo by District funds, Rs. 5,ooo by Local funds,
Rs. 3,ooo by municipal funds, and Rs. 9,ooo by subscriptions. The